YOUNG LEARNERS PERCEPTION OF USING
GAME AS A MEDIA IN TEACHING ENGLISH
Ida Ayu Agung
Ganesha University of Education
the digital era, the development of technology leads people to enter the
age of digital era, where various kinds of digital technology can be accessed
freely and fluently.
Young learners have been actively using e-media such as, smartphone, computer,
and internet. They are used to play a game such as game online, play station
and video. Sometimes it can give a negative impact on the young learner. But it
can also give benefit to young learner if they use it wisely. English
as an international language and around of use have used English to make easy
in communicating with the other people in the world. Therefore, English should be started since
the people are in their early age. Therefore to make the teacher easy in the
teaching process and utilize the technology the teacher can use a game as a
strategy in teaching and learn in the classroom in order to the students do not
feel bored during class time. Besides, it can help students in learning
Keywords: Game, learning English,
and young learners.
1. Research Background
In the digital era, English as an
international language and around of use have used English to make easy in
communicating with the other people in the world. English is a foreign language
and it is not Indonesian mother tongue, but nowadays in Indonesian people have
to learn English in order to can communicate and easier to get knowledge.
Therefore, English should be started since the
people are in their early age. According to Nirmawati (2014), in educational
aspect, it has been taught in some levels of education in Indonesia, such as
elementary school, junior high school, and senior high school in order to make
young generation already to face globalization era
founded the students have known English but they do not understand with meaning
and pronounce. Therefore the teachers have to pay attention to the problem
faced by the students. In order to the students achieve learning goals. Preparing fun activities also should be paid
attention to the teacher in order to the young learners not easily get bored
and teaching and learning process in the classroom be run well. Therefore game
as the strategy to be implemented by the teacher in teaching young learners at
English class (Richards & Rodgers, 2001). By using a game in the learning process can make the students feel
fun and enjoy a learning process. At this time, a game comes in non-electronic
and electronic format (Moursund). Because at this
moment we are in the digital era, so game in electronic format needs to be
developed to support in learning English process. Teaching
foreign languages with games can be an alternative approach in an overseas
language class where in video games deliver opportunities for young learners to
experience the revel in of learning the language and gaining knowledge of
know-how and skills in a fun way.
2. Research Problem
Based on the
background above, the research question formulated as follows.
is students’ perception of using a game as media for teaching English for young
How is the quality of a game as media for
teaching English for young learners?
3. Research Objective
of this research formulated as follows.
know students’ perception of using game as a media for teaching English at
know the quality of game as a media for teaching English at elementary school
4. Research Significance
This research is
expected to give theoretical and practical significance. The theoretical and
practical significance of this research could be described as follows.
theoretical significance of this research can support the theory of teaching
English for young learners in which young learners are actively construct
meaning from their experiences and have the chance to try something new by
using a game in learning English. The use of the game as a media can make the
process learning English run effectively.
2. Practical Significance
practical significance of this research can help the teachers to implement the
new type of electronic media in teaching English for young learners and help
the students to improve their English.
5. Scope of the Study
This research focuses on the game as media for
teaching English in elementary school
B. Theoretical Review
1. Young Learner
According to (Scott), young learners are
between five and ten or eleven years old while according to Rixon (in Yuliana,
2003) young learners are children between the ages of about five years old to
twelve years old. Meanwhile, the ages of young learners can vary from country
to the others country. It is caused by young learners is based on the years
that is spent in the elementary school before the transition to secondary
school (Yuliana, 2003).
According (Thomson) from an early age, young
learners start to sort children first begin to sort out words involving
concrete objects when introducing to L2 classroom. Therefore young learners
need a vocabulary that connects with an object which they can see in order to
make young learners can learn easily. Therefore English teacher must know the
kinds of language learning resources for young learners in order to the students can understand easily (Sukarno, 2008). Moreover, the teacher can use media in delivering the materials to make
the students can understand quickly (Juhana, 2014).
of Young Learners
In teaching, the teacher has to pay attention
to the characteristic of the students in order to the teacher is not difficult
in delivering the materials to young learners. In order to make the teacher is
easier in the teaching process, the teacher should know the characteristic of
The characteristic of young learners (Scott).
They use hands,
ears, and eyes to make it them easy to understand
have very short attention and concentration span
children like to play
children are enthusiastic and positive about learning.
On the other hand, according to (Juhana, 2014), there are essential principles of good learning materials for
young learners related to the how they learn a foreign language.
learners have a great curiosity to try new things and to explore concrete to
abstract things. In this case, the teacher must give materials accommodate
young learners’ curiosity with suitable activities start with familiar topics
such as colors, numbers, greetings, animals, fruit, food and drink, families,
body parts, shapes, clothing, the weather, days of the week and everyday
sentences and phrases.
learners actively construct meaning from their experiences. They learn directly through their
experience that they ever know before. In this case, therefore, the teacher
needs to provide materials based on learning experience which encourages young
learners to get information from a variety of sources.
learners have a quite short attention span and are easy to get bored. Therefore
the teacher must give them various teaching techniques and materials such as by
playing games, watching, and singing to avoid students who get bored in the
So it can be concluded that in teaching
English for young learners the teacher must know first about the characteristic
of young learners and the way to teach them. Preparing fun activities also
should be paid attention to the teacher in order to the young learners not
easily get bored and teaching and learning process in the classroom be run
Definition of E-Media
electronic media entered into life, with television, movies, videos, music,
video games, and computers. (Dave, 2011).
Electronic media is reached at the level where every field of our day to day
life is affected by it. Electronic media also can be effectively used in
agriculture, higher education, open & distance education, news management,
and disaster management (Pandey, 2012).
In education, electronic media or media technologies are used as a tool to
encourage students to learn English for effective communication (Klentien and Kamnungwut, 2015). With the
advancement of current technology, such as smartphones and tablets, it could be
more attractive to be used by Indonesian people today (Manuaba, 2017). The
rise of smartphones and tablets among in Indonesia means that most of the
people are connected to the internet every time. It causes electronic media is
often used by the people. Therefore it is one of solution that can be used to
encourage people to do activities and at the same time also conducting new
learning. Therefore electronic media
can influence students’ learning.
The Use of E-Media
According to (Shaqour),
there are five fields in which teachers can use electronic resources:
resources dramatically improve the continuity of the course.
by utilizing these materials, students can become more active learners.
that turn to be easier to write with the help of electronic resources and
Ø Lectures that turn
to be easier to prepare and to integrate into their content various electronic
media with the help of electronic resources.
Ø Discussion in and
out of the classroom is made easier with the electronic discussion tools such
as e-mail, conferencing software, and online chat services.
The Benefit of E-Media
According to (Klentien and
Kamnungwut, 2015), media technologies are used by students as a tool to
encourage them in learning English. They also added some advantages of
electronic media especially in learning they are;
1. Learning English through e-media can increase the
effectiveness of English learning of students. In e-media, students can learn
many things because the available of resources can make the students are easier
to get knowledge
In learning electronic lessons technique gives
students with interesting lessons it makes study more fun. Because it usually
have selective contents, learning activities, exercises, and tests that can
make improve students’ learning.
(as cited in Klentien and Kamnungwut, 2015)
argued that teaching language through e-media can help the learners to
understand the language in a real social and cultural context.
Rixon (1981 as cited in Bakhsh, 2016) stated that games are activities have a
beginning and an end with a winner. According to Alessi & Trollip,
1984; Baid & Lambert, 2010; Kirikkaya, ??ER?, & Vurkaya, 2010;
Huizenga, Akkerman, Admiraal, & Dam (2009 as cited in YIEN, 2011) Games have been perceived just like
a decent device to elevate students to effectively take part in the learning
process. Therefore it can support the teacher in teaching and learning process.
Besides, a game has interest form
that can attract the attention of the children to enjoy play game. Therefore it
is the solution for the teacher to use a game as a media to attract students’
attention. There are lots of games in this world. Started from a game that can
play only one person and there is a game played by more than one person. There
is online and offline game. Through the game, the children can entertain themselves.
Games have dependably been and seen images of fun, involvement, rivalry, and
participation (YAHOUI, 2012).
important of games to young learners
Games help teacher in teaching and
learning process. It can help the teacher in various skills such as grammar,
listening, speaking, writing, reading, and pronunciation (Laurian-Fitzgerald, 2015). Therefore it is important to help
students learning English and can improve their skill and it can attract
students to learn something fun and interesting. Besides that, through games
students will be enjoyed in the learning process and easy to remember something
that is showed in the games. It is very suitable for young learners in learning
English. On the other hand the real significance of games of prodding
inspiration and decreasing the feeling of anxiety in the classroom. Games can
be used at every stage of a class to give fun activity and challenge of the
activity. It is important to make the students be fun in English class (Harmer,
to implement game?
In implementing game the teacher
can use a computer to support the process of learning through the game. Not
only that, this game can be installed on a mobile phone in order to the
students are easier to learn something through this game. This game also can be
played in students’ home in order so they can learn individually. If this game
is implemented in the school, the teacher can give the students this game by
installing the game in students’ mobile phone. If the students have not a
mobile phone, the teacher can use a computer to play the game and the students
can play the game by themselves.
C. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
1. Research Design
research was development qualitative research. This research is aimed at the
effect of the game as media for young learners at elementary school. The low
English comprehension is the general problem experienced by most students in
the class. Therefore the researcher conducted this research in order to know
the influence of game as a media to make improvement in teaching and learning process. This study was
designed by using the qualitative method. Qualitative research is usually very concerned about
processes, events, and authenticity. In qualitative research the situation is
limited, involving subjects with relatively few numbers (Somantri, 2005).
Therefore the data is related to the qualitative research.
2. Research Subject
subject of this research is young learners. They
are chosen because there are some problems that found the researcher,
therefore, the researcher tries to solve that problem by using a game as a
media to improve English.
Object of the Study
The object of this research is game as a media for
learning especially in English class. The research developed game is adapted to
the syllabus in curriculum 2013.
Method of Data Collection
There are two kind methods of collecting
data. They are interview and observation Sugiyono (2010).
to Sugiyono (2010), the first method is an interview. It is used when the
researcher wants to know about the deep information from the respondent. There
are two kinds of interview namely structured and unstructured. The structured
interview is used when the researcher has known for sure about the information
will be obtained. Therefore, the researcher makes the outlined questions and
already prepared the alternative answers. Besides, the unstructured interview
is used when the researcher does not know about the information will be
obtained. Therefore, in this process, the researcher just prepares the
interview guide to remind the researcher about the point that will be asked to
the informants and write down the information from the respondent. Furthermore,
in this research, the researcher will use the unstructured interview.
to Sugiyono (2010), the second method is used for the research on the human
behavior, work processes, natural phenomenon, and a small number of
observed-subjects. There are two kinds of observation namely participant
observation and non-participant observation. Participant observation is about
the observer is directly involved in the activities of the research subject.
Then non-participant observation is about the observer is only as an observer,
the observer is not involved in the activities of the research subject.
Furthermore, this research will use non-participant observation because the
researcher wants to pay attention and wants to watch the entire event during
5. Data Instrument
is an instrument that is used in this research. They are interview and
The interview is used to get information and collect
the data about students. Besides that, the researcher also needs do interview
to know the appropriate potency of the students in learning English. It is used
in gaining information about the students’ problem about learning English or
Research diary is used to remind the researcher about
the event, the feeling of implementing the product. There are several important
things that should be written in the research diary such as: (1) which part of
the media is not suitable, (2) which parts of the activity did not work as
expected, (3) what part should be improved, (4) how should improve, and (5)
what students’ difficulties in applying the media.
The data in this research will be analyzed
qualitatively. Qualitative data was gathered from interview guide and researcher
implementation of games in teaching English
this game I
used 10 refugee children as a sample in teaching English use
game. Why I used 10 refugee children,
because of the students still a holiday, there is no official letter for
implementation, and happened
to be a refugee eruption of the Agung Mountains fleeing in my house so I
implemented my game to them while learning English to be fun. After I
implemented the game, there are 7 children felt happy and they said that using
the game, learning English becomes interesting, easy to understand, and the
picture and music make learning process be fun. But there are 3 children are
still confused when pronouncing it. Because there is pronounced that is
difficult to understand. They are still confused in differentiate
“motorcycle” with “bicycle”. Therefore the sound in the
game should be improved in order to the students can listen the sound and see
the picture in the game.
face-to-face interviews discovered that students experienced a number of
benefits from education game. Their answers to the interview questions
discovered that they’ve now not used education game very often before having
this experience. But as quickly as they found out to apply it, they found it a
very beneficial experience. They mentioned that it’s far very exciting and
amusing in learning procedure. Their responses to the interview questions
revealed that the most important points that involved them were the image and
the sounds in the game. Quizzes submitted were motivating too. They encouraged
that game to be used in different courses.
Bakhsh, S. A. (2016). Using Games as A tool in Teaching
Vocabulary to Young Learners. English Language Teaching.
Dave, D. (2011, October- December). Electronic Media and
Child Behaviour. National Journal of Medical Research, 1(2), 87-89.
Harmer, Jeremy. 1991. The Practice
of English Language Teaching: New Edition. New York: Longman.
Juhana. (2014, February). Teaching English to Young Learners:
Some Points to be Considered. Asian Journal of Education and e-Learning, 02(01).
Klentien, U., & Kamnungwut, W. (2015, August). The Impact
of Using Electronic Media in English Teaching for Elementary and Secondary
Students in Thailand. International Journal of Information and Education
Technology, 5, 582-586.
Laurian-Fitzgerald, S. (2015). The Effects of Using Games for
English as A Second Language Primary School Learners.
Liu, E. Z. (2013). The Effect of Game-Based Learning on
Students’ Learning Performance in Science Learning – A Case of “Conveyance
Go”., (pp. 1044 – 1051).
Manuaba, I. B. (2017). Text-Based Games as Potential Media
for Improving Reading Behavior in Indonesia. 2nd International Conference on
Computer Science and Computational Intelligence 2017, (pp. 214-221). Bali,
Indonesia: Elsevier B.V.
Moursund, D. (n.d.). Introduction to Using Games in
Education: A Guide for Teachers and Parents. Retrieved from
Naz, D. A. (n.d.). Use of Media for Effective Instruction its
Importance: Some Consideration. Journal of Elementary Education, 18,
Nirmawati, L. A. (2015). Improving
Student’s Speaking Skills through Speaking Board Games of Grade VIII of SMP N
13 Yogyakarta in the Academic Year of 2013/2014. S1 thesis, Universitas
Negeri Yogyakarta. online Available from: http://eprints.uny.ac.id/17185/1/Skripsi%20Lia.pdfAccessed
20 October 2017
Pandey, A. K. (2012). Electronic Media Based E-Education
Model for Media Persons. International Journal of Education and
Psychological Research (IJEPR), 1, 12-18.
Richard, G. &Rogers, J. (2001). The Practice of
English Language Teaching. Oxford: Longman.
Scott. (n.d.). Teaching English to Children. (N. Grant, Ed.) Longman
Shaqour, A. (n.d.). Factors Influencing Students’ Use of
Electronic Resources and their Opinions about this Use:The Case of Students at
An-Najah National University.
Singh, A. (2014, July). Challenges and Issues of Generation
Z. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), 16(7), 59-63.
Somantri, G. R. (2005). Memahami metode qualitative. 57-65.
Sugiyono. (2010). Metode Penelitian Pendidikan Pendekatan
Kuantitatif, Kualitatif, dan R & D. Bandung: Alfabeta.
Sukarno. (2008, April). Teaching English to Young Learners
and Factors to Consider The Materials. Jurnal Ekonomi & Pendidikan, 5.
Thomson, S. (n.d.). Teaching Young Learners: Adapting the
classroom for YELLs. University of Birmingham.
YAHOUI, N. (2012). The Effectiveness of Language Games in
Improving Learners’ Vocabulary.
YIEN, J.-M. (2011, April). A Game-Based Learning Approach to
Improving Students’ Learning Achievements In A Nutrition Course. TOJET: The
Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 10.
Yuliana. (2003, June). Teaching English to Young Learners
through Songs. Jurusan Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Kristen
Petra, 5(1), 62-66.