Web not be able to connect to the


The correct web architecture must be used in order
for the users to access the webpages. Without this, users will not be able to
connect to the internet and the web servers will not be able to respond to the
user’s needs, the following are key architectures used by the web;

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Internet service
providers (ISP)

This is a company which provides
users with internet, IPS’S usually provide services for both personal and
business use e.g. Sky.


Web hosting services

Allows companies to host their
websites on the companies’ servers. Most companies need you to own your own
domain to be able to host with them.


Domain structure

This allows browsers to determine
what sort of page it is on, e.g. the https protocol at the beginning of a
domain name shows the browser that it should have an SSL certificate.


Domain name registrars

This company is in charge of
selling domain names, the registrar is in charge of keeping a record of the owner’s


World Wide Web

The World Wide Web is a
collection of web pages found on computer networks. Documents can be linked to
other documents using HTML and other mark-up languages.




Certain components are needed in
order to access the internet and to serve content to the World Wide Web.




Web server

Computers that deliver web pages,
every web server has an IP address and a domain name. When a user wants to
access a website the request goes to the web server who then will send files
needed to display the content to the client so they can display the webpage for
the user.


Mail server

Server used for transferring
emails across the internet, users are able to log in to mail servers in order
to access their emails, it wouldn’t be possible to send emails without a mail


Proxy server

A server which acts as a link for
requests from clients who need resources from other servers. Proxy server is
used mainly to hide the clients IP address for security reasons, this can
prevent attack and unexpected access.



Ensured data packets are sent to
the right computer, a router is needed if there is more than one computer on a





Used by internet users. Brower
send requests for files needed to the web server who then sends the files and
the content is displayed to the user.


A protocol used to transport data
across the internet and is responsible for making sure packets are sent to the
correct destination.

HTTPS (hypertext transfer protocol)

used to interact with clients directly, this is for secure webpages, and the
purpose of https is protection of exchanged data.Web 2.0We 2.0 Refers to
World Wide Web websites, this enables users to communicate through social
media. Task
1.3A What is TCP/IP?TCP- transitions control protocol.IP- internet protocolTCP/IP is a group
of processes and rules, TCP and IP are widely used together. Two computers can
interchange data when they both follow the same protocol. BApplication layer
protocolAn application
layer protocol determines how applications running on different systems,
transmit messages to each other. Different protocols transmit messages for
different reasons, for example; to send emails, to receive emails or to display
content from the internet. CExamples of
application layer protocols are;HTTP (hypertext transfer protocol) is the most commonly used
application layer protocol. The use of HTTP is to provide a protocol to
retrieve documents from websites on the internet. This means that it will find
and display the content the user is looking for. HTTP uses TCP to transfer
information between computers.FTP (file transfer protocol) is a protocol which is used to
transfer computer files between a client and a server on a computer network.
FTP uses TCP/IP to transport files.SMTP (simple mail transfer protocol) is a protocol used for
the transmission of emails. This is also very commonly used, as SMTP is used to
send emails and usually IMAP
(internet message access protocol) is used to receive emails from a mail server
over a TCP/IP connection.Task 1.4The performance
of a website is affected by server side and user side factors.User sideDownload speed Download speed is the speed at which something is
copied from the internet to a computer system. Download speed is measured in
megabits per second. If the user has a slow download speed, the web page will
take longer to load.BrowsersSome browsers use more RAM. Browsers which use
less RAM generally improve performance, whereas browsers that use more RAM can
cause information to load much slower. Two example of browsers which use less
RAM are internet explorer and Firefox.Computer
specificationThe user’s computer specification may influence
the performance of a website, for example;Cache memory- this is temporary memory stored on a
computer. A computer with larger cache generally temporarily stores a lot more
thing, this allows a quicker access and quicker website performance.Server sideWeb
server bandwidth Bandwidth refers to the amount of data traffic
that can be downloaded from a website per second. If there are lots of people
downloading from a website at once the speed of the download will be slower.Executions
to be performed before page loads Executions to be performed before page loads
refers to scripts which operate behind the front page such as JavaScript, this
allows the website to perform many steps before loading the images and videos,
This can affect website performance as this could lead to images and videos
loading slower if there are too many scripts.Bitmap/vector
There are many different file types, this can
affect the performance of a website as different file types have different
sizes, and the larger the file size is the longer the website will take to load.
Vector images usually have smaller file sizes than bitmaps. Which means
websites which contain bitmap images are likely to load slower than websites
that contain vector images.Wav/MP3Wav- sound files with an extension can be played
with almost all windows applications which support sound. MP3- this is a common audio format. This is a
compressed audio file which means it is much smaller than Wav.

Bigger audio files would affect website
performance, so MP3 would be the best way of uploading sound files as it would
not affect website performance as much as Wav files would.


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