The to. The purpose is to reduce the


The reinforcement theory


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Behavior is a function
of its consequence, which means the behavior that we engage in are
significantly dependent upon the consequences is what we are going to receive.

According to the reinforcement theory we would engage into behaviors, which we
would be rewarded for, and we would avoid the behavior we are not rewarded for.

Skinner developed 4 types of reinforcements:


Positive reinforcement:
linking desired behavior with a consequence that people consider to be
pleasant. Examples: good GPA and ceremony award.


Negative reinforcement:
 it consists of removing an undesirable
consequence to increase frequency of desired behavior. Example: the constant
parental nagging to a kid to clean his room. In an organizational setting if
used incorrectly it represents a certain threat for instance the company tells
its employees “if you don’t improve you will be fired”. It is advisable not to
use it at its extreme.


Punishment:  it is a short-term appliance and not engage a
commitment on the long term like the positive reinforcement would do. It is adding
an unpleasant consequence as a response to a person’s behavior in which he or
she is engaged to. The purpose is to reduce the frequency of this unwanted
behavior. It is preferably to use it as a last resort because if it is used
incorrectly has the ability to hurt the relationship with employees and it is
therefore irreversible. However it needs to exist so the employees would avoid


Extinction: similar to
punishment to reduce the frequency of the unwanted behavior but differs at
adding no response to a person’s behavior. In this type of reinforcement the
behavior is not acknowledge and therefore totally ignored Example: cracking
jokes in a meeting or a council over and over, with no response the jokes would
not be acknowledge and consequently the person will at the end change the
impulsive behavior.


Positive reinforcement
is not always good and beneficial and the negative reinforcement is not always

Reinforcement theory is
a crucial understanding of how people grasp behavior. It is frequently applied
within to a professional setting framed under behavioral modification program.

Even though the reinforcement theory assumptions are reproached, its doctrine
delivers significant insights into one’s learning and motivation.






digital era enabled the easy access of someone’s information. Most people tend
to express themselves through social media, by giving their thoughts and
beliefs about particular topics such as through Facebook, Twitter and so on. It
is a compelling evidence to be aware of what content one is sharing or already
shared simply because it may impact the individual in the future. In effect,
the odds of being cyber-vetted are important when applying for a certain job
position.  The recruiter wants to make
sure if the person interviewed will fit perfectly the company’s culture.

However it should not impact vehemently on the final decision otherwise it
would not be fair reason to turn down a candidate, that is why Donlon-Cotton
suggests that employers “need a policy that clearly states your agency will use
cyber information as a supplement to pre-employment and pre-promotion
screening” (2012).

In my
opinion cyber-vetting is supposed to be used as background verification only
rather than to be considered as an assessment tool.


How could employers obtain information without
breaching the candidate’s privacy?

·      Set up an official guide about collecting
information on potential employees that should be strictly followed and
describe type of data that should be gathered.

·      Unify the criteria of each potential employee

·      Use social media as background identification
not as an assessment tool

·      Exclude protected grounds and any
discriminatory criteria

Give the
room to the potential candidates to express themselves about negative
information found on Internet.


If the
cyber-vetting is not used correctly and aligned with human rights principles,
the candidate has the right to appeal against the recruiter and therefore it
may cost a lot to the company to alleviate the damages.


key point that candidates do not have the chance to explain the outdated or
fake information on the net for the purpose of defending themselves and twist
it positively. However it is also regarded illegal to cyber-vet as similar to
follow someone from behind in the street or checking someone all day through
the window which is basically the same thing that would get you arrested.


It is
important to highlight how digital and the overall technologies will interfere
in the recruiting process and employment.





Change Management



order to catch-up the fast moving business world and remain competitive,
organizations tend to implement some changes whether in the firm structure,
technologies or job roles, and also to enhance the company’s performance.

are 3 types of change management:


change management: it is the individual’s responsiveness to resist change
within an organization by providing certain training to a particular tool or a
new process implemented in the work place.

change management: it identifies the groups and people concerned to adopt the

change management: it is where the worker embraces the change easily and
quickly backed up with a team-leader whom introduction to a strategic
initiative or a new change in technology.


It is fundamental for the
organization to foresee before implementing the change or embracing a new
enterprise system, many organizations knew failure due to that.  One example among others is the failure of
the National Health System (NHS) in the United Kingdom abandoned the IT system
due to their lack of knowledge and training to the change and causes a 10b loss
for the organization. It is noticeable that change could be successful or not
on any sector from public to private, one can simply recall the Daimler
Chrysler split failed merging due to the cultural change both could not adapt


As a matter of fact, it is not always a bad
idea to embrace change within organization. On the contrary, it is highly
recommended to better compete against their rivals and develop new skills to
employees. It is advantageous for the organization to allow its employees to
adapt and learn more about the changes and realise how important to move
forward by embracing it. Overall, it is important to realise if the
stakeholders, employees and customers would easily put up with change if they
were included in the whole process to guarantee a better outcome of the change.


On the other hand, some drawbacks may turn
out during the change management related to not following correctly the change
process and therefore leads to failure. 
It is compelling for stakeholders, customers and employees to be kept up
to date about the whole process through an effective communication. In addition
to these changes can be risky if the employees are not comfortable with culture


Although the change management seems risky,
but the positive it may result outweigh the potential issues. Change enables
organizations to make a breakthrough in their industry and standout from



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