The interethnic clashes in Kenya date back since independence in 1963. Kenya is one of the developed countries in East African, many believe her economy is stable in eastern and central Africa. This is a country which composed of 42 ethnic groups. Kikuyu, Kalenjin, and Luo are the largest ethnic group. Kenya was under the British colony before its independence, it’s a country which is based on rule of law and its election cycle after every five years.
The country has been ruled by, The late Jomo Kenyatta, Daniel Moi, Mwai Kibaki and the current president Uhuru Kenyatta. Between 1963-2002 the country was under the Kanu point men Jomo and Daniel, the country had faced many challenges which include, assassination, dictatorship corruption, and harsh economic condition.
After the upheld of section ii of constitution in 1992 many Kenyans thought that the end regime was a beginning of new dawn
The long ethnic violence that has rocked the country in recent times as I have aforementioned dates back since independence. The long-standing conflicts between Kikuyu and Kalenjin are all about the land and this has flipped after every election. Historical injustices have been grievances behind Kalenjin tribes.
Rwanda in 1994, ethnic violence, political leaders has taken advantage to incite their communities to fight against one another. The aspect of a tribe has indefinitely be employed by leaders to make them ascended to power.
This turn events in Kenya politics have to lead many Kenyans lost their lives. Getting into the record, the 1992 post-election violence was another mechanization by leaders in form to save their communities. Many Kenyans were displaced, and others killed for no reasons.
The 2007 Post-Election Violence
In 2002, Kenya was in other new dawn, many had hoped and believed that the end of Kanu regime has set a new light. After intense and competitive campaigned the National Rainbow coalition won the 2002 election against preferred Kanu candidate Uhuru Kenyatta. This renewed hope and aspirations of Kenyans that the menace of corruption will end soon, however, later Kenyans felt little. The government promised to steer the country in the more democratic way and to deliver promises they had made during the campaign. The listed many issues to address from unemployment, constitution, tribalism, nepotism and equal share of the distribution of resources.
The collation did not last for long, this was up after the constitutional referendum, the opposition and some other leaders joined hands to campaigned against the proposed constitution which was later defeated, this lead to the formation of orange democratic movement which was later split into orange part of Kenya the, the two parties were made strong after successful party nomination Raila Odinga was elected to face off Mwai Kibaki of National Party and Kalonzo of Orange Party of Kenya.
After a tense campaign in 2007, the country was on election mood, and many leaders hoped that they will emerge the winners, many poll surveys indicated that Raila was the most preferred candidate, unlike the rest. Raila had enjoyed the most populous Kalenjin vote which had a sign on his win
The election was held on Dec 2017, and many Kenyans had gone to vote and hoped that the election will be free, fair and peaceful, the processed went on well, Raila Odinga was leading against Mwai Kibaki and Kalonzo at the distant third. The results were streaming live from the local National Broadcast television and a sort of disagreement was raised by the opposition leader that the electoral commissioner was delaying releasing the results and he is planning to declare it in favor of Kibaki. The tension was very high in the country. This lead to the commotion at the national tallying center after the differences broke between the opposing sides. The chairman had to be flown to an undisclosed destination to release the final tally.
The chairman of Eck Samuel Kivuitu declared Kibaki as a winner of the 2007 election. After the announcement, the outburst broke.
Raila Odinga of ODM then called a press conference and asked his supports that they won’t accept the disputed result he asked them they are going to demonstrate in the country. The words sparked momentum and within few minutes houses were set ablaze and properties worth off thousands of dollars were destroyed. Many communities in the process were displaced, women and children were raped.
In Mombasa, Kisumu, Naivasha, Eldoret and Nakuru slams where the most affected, in Kibera, rowdy youths damaged railway which connected Uganda-Kenya. In Nakuru and Naivasha youth barricaded the roads, this had an economic impact on the transport sector, tourism. In Eldoret for example, the perceived Kikuyu community was displaced, roughed up, beaten and chased away, their homesteads and farm products were destroyed. The church was set on fire and it Killed all the occupants. The violence lasted for almost one many, it drew up international attention, United State urged Kenyan leadership to end the stalemate. The process to reconciled was far from reality. Each said was not willing to seat on the table, former Nobel winner Desmond Tutu, Ghanaian John Kufuor tried nothing to come out of it. The opposition threatened to swear Raila Odinga, government promise to deal with anyone who breaches the law. Demonstration resulted in hate, then destruction and looting. It took former United Nation Koffi Annan effort to bring the two leaders to the table and agreed to share a pack. The National accord government has formed the coalition, the accord outlined the creation position the office prime minister and two deputies from each side. The accord recommended that the coalition is tasked to form a commission that will look and address the cause of the post-election violence and also the independent body to look and address historical injustices.
After the collation government settled, they formed a commission known as Waki commission was to look on the causes of the post-election violence, the commission performed its task and recommended that the there was need to establish a tribunal to look on the historical injustice, the commission noted that the perpetrators of the election be charged, latter the Waki presented secret evolve to Chief mediator Kofi Annan. The Waki commission provided guidelines that the parliament to set up a local tribunal to try the perpetrators of post-election violence within six months. The issues were politicized, and the MP failed to establish a tribunal, this leads the former UN secretary hand over the Names to Moreno Ocampo the chief ICC prosecutor.
In early December 2010, the Moreno Ocampo, named the six secret Kenyan in the Waki list, the named persons were the following, the current President Uhuru Kenyatta, Deputy President William Ruto, Former head civil service Francis Muthaura, Former Agriculture Minister Henry Kiprono Kosgey, Journalist Joshua Arap Sang, Former Police commissioner Hussain Muhammad Ail, they were charged with crimes against humanity.
The ICC prosecutor requested chamber three to allow him to carry investigations, after the first stage they found unable to proceed with cases involving, Mohammad Ali and Henry Kosgey due it hand no foundation. The cases against. Uhuru Kenyatta, Muthaura, Ruto, and Sang proceed to the next stage were the perpetrators compelled to attend the proceedings.
The cases faced obstacles along the way, the prosecutor was not able to continue with the case against Muthaura, she withdrew charges against him, citing inadequate cooperation by the government of Kenya. More so, the many witnesses recanted their witnesses because they alleged being intimated and fear the reprisals after the case. The prosecutor pointed out that some victims have been killed, corrupted so as they won’t give out the information, the prosecution also had little to protected them since because many victims were away refuges in some countries. However, many thought ICC was the only hope for victims of violence, but all the cases were terminated because insufficient evidence