The purpose of the memo is to
give the audience analysis of any person that will read this research report.
The purpose of the report was to analyze the developments of the mechanized
artificial limbs in the recent innovations. The topic that was chosen was
mechanized artificial limbs.
When I was writing the report,
the types of readers I thought would be interested included the people
requiring the amputation, and the prosthetist. The people in need of the
amputation are likely to read this report to help them know what is required of
the process. The prosthetist will also read to increase their efficiency and
effectiveness in the process.
description of the audience affected the research report
This report targeted the amputees and the
prosthetist. In my introduction I indicated the things that will be addressed
in the report. This informed the two kinds of audiences what they needed to
learn from the report.
The raw materials section of
the results involved the various materials that are required by the prosthetist
in making a good artificial limb. The section also helps the amputee to know
the things that are required to give him or her efficient limb.
The other section includes the
process of manufacturing. This section is general for all readers, as it
highlights the process in which the artificial limb goes through until it is
finished. The prosthetist can obtain ideas from this section. In the section on
future developments, it highlighted the expected changes in the innovation, and
the improvements that have been made.
current Mechanized Artificial Limbs usually provide a rudimentary functionality
for the application in the day life. The artificial limbs are usually intended
to restore the degree of normal functioning of the amputees. In the recent years
technical innovations have been combined to make the artificial limbs much more
comfortable, efficient, and effective and life like the earlier versions. The
innovation in the future are likely to depend on the interactions between the
three powerful forces of the demand, the advancement in the surgery and
engineering, and the funding in health care that is sufficient to sustain the development and the
application of the Mechanized Artificial Limbs technological solutions. This
report discusses the development of the new Mechanized Artificial Limbs that
are currently available, and discusses the future developments. The data that
will be presented in the research result leads to a conclusion on the
development of the Mechanized Artificial Limbs.
report gives the detailed results of my research on the development of the
Mechanized Artificial Limbs, and the continued adoption of this innovation. The
research was conducted through intensive consultation of the manufacturers’
publications, the reports on the innovations, the reviews of the technology, and
articles from the internet.
Artificial Limbs or the prosthesis is a development that is aimed at restoring
the normal function of the limbs. They are the mechanical devices that help the
amputees to walk again or continue to use the two hands.
Mechanized Artificial Limbs have been in use since the ancient times, and the
most notable one is the peg leg. However, the procedure for the surgical
amputation was no well successful at around 600 BC. The first sophisticated prosthesis
was created by Armorers using strong, heavy and inflexible iron to make the
limbs that the amputee could scarcely control. Most of the changes happened in
the 19th century, and was initiated by the amputees themselves J.E
Hanger, an engineering student who lost his leg during the civil war. He
designed an artificial leg for himself, and in 1861, he founded a company that
began to manufacture the Mechanized Artificial Limbs. This company exists until
today. In 1909, D.W Dorrence invented a device that would be used in the place
of the hand, after losing his arm in an accident, and was not happy with the
prosthetic arms available then ( Fischmann, 2014). The most remarkable development of the 20th
century was the myoelectric prosthetic limbs. This development involved use of
the electric signals from the muscles in the arm of the patient in moving the
limb. In recent years, computers have been used in fitting the amputees with the
Mechanized Artificial Limbs.
involves a permanent disfiguration. For many people, to get the pain relief of
an infected limb through amputation has been a welcome. However, the resentment
by some people is usually understandable. Despite the modern Mechanized
Artificial Limbs, there are some adaptations that are required, and people vary
in terms of their ability in adjusting to the body change and lifestyle. The
technology has enabled many people to continue with their normal
responsibilities because the artificial limbs work normally.
evaluation will be done by focusing on the following limbs. First are the
artificial legs, secondly the artificial arms, and the interface between stump
and the socket.
In evaluating the development
of the Mechanized Artificial Limbs, the following research methods were
To understand how he Mechanized Artificial Limbs
were developed, I went to the various website of the companies manufacturing
the limbs and read the technology applied.
To learn on the raw materials used in the
manufacturing of the Mechanized Artificial Limbs, the research reviewed the
technical reports, and visited the various internet articles.
To understand the manufacturing process of the
artificial limbs, there was consultation of the manufacturer’s publications and
the reading of the various technical reports.
To learn on the future developments of the
artificial limbs, I reviewed the manufacturer’s publications and the customer’s
reviews on the limbs and their recommendations.
section will address the findings of the research that was able to conduct.
First I will be able to provide the information related to the raw materials
used in the manufacturing of the artificial limbs. Secondly, I will discuss the
manufacturing process of the Mechanized Artificial Limbs, and finally the
future developments of this technology.
The raw materials
typical Mechanized Artificial Limbs usually consist of the custom fitted
socket, the internal structure, the knee cuffs and the belts that attach the
limb to the body, the prosthetic sockets that is used to cushion the contact
area, and a realistic looking skin. The manufacturers of the artificial limbs
are currently undergoing changes in many levels mainly concerning their choice
of the raw materials. The artificial limb should first of all be made from the
light weight materials, hence large part of it is made of plastic. The socket
is usually made up of polypropylene. The light weight materials like aluminum
and titanium have replaced the use of steel. The alloys of titanium and aluminum
are mostly used in the manufacturing process (O’Connor, 2000). The newest
development in the manufacturing of the Mechanized Artificial Limbs includes
the use of the carbon fiber in the formation of the light weight pylon.
some parts of the limb like the feed have been made using wood and rubber. Even
as a today, the feet are made from urethane foam alongside a wooden inner keel
construction. Some other materials that are commonly used include polyethylene,
the polypropylene, the acrylics, and the polyurethane. The prosthetic sockets
are made of the soft and strong fabrics (O’Connor, 2000). The socks
are made up of the wool, cotton and other synthetic materials.
the physical appearance of the artificial limb is very important to the
amputee. Most of the endoskeleton prostheses are normally covered with soft
polyurethane foam. This is designed to match with the shape of the patient’s
sound limb. The cover is then covered with an artificial skin that is painted
to match the color of the patient’s skin.
The manufacturing process
Mechanized Artificial Limbs are not produced in large quantities to be sold
from the store. First, the Mechanized Artificial Limbs need to be first be
prescribed by the doctor, normally after consultation with the amputee, a prosthetist,
and a physical therapist. The patient is then required to visit the prosthetist
to have the limb fitted. Despite the fact that some parts like the socket are custom
made, many other parts like the feet, pylons are usually manufactured from the
factory. They are then sent to the prosthetist, and assembled at the facility
of the prosthetist according to the needs of the patient (LeMoyne, 2016). At a
few facilities, the limbs are custom made from the beginning to their finish.
The manufacturing process involves the following steps.
The measuring and casting
The accuracy and the attention to the details
are important in the manufacturing of the Mechanized Artificial Limbs. This is
because the goal having a limb that is as close as possible, and useful as the
natural one. Before beginning the fabrication work, the prosthetist evaluates
the amputee, and takes an impression or the digital reading of the residual
limb (LeMoyne, 2016).
The prosthetist goes ahead and takes the
measurements of the lengths of the body segments, and makes the determination
of the bones location and the tendons in the remaining parts of the limbs.
Using these impressions and the measurements, the prosthetist makes the plaster
cast of the stump that is commonly made of plaster of Paris to give detailed
Making of the socket
begins by heating a sheet of clear thermoplastic in a big oven, and a vacuum is
formed around the positive mold. The heated sheet is then laid over the top of
the mold in the vacuum chamber. The air that is between the sheet and the mold
is then sucked out, collapsing the sheet, and forcing it to have an exact shape
like that of the mold. The thermoplastic sheet becomes the test socket, and it
is normally transparent to help the prosthetist check the fit.
making the permanent socket, the prosthetist works with the amputee to ensure
that the test socket is fitted well. In the cases of the missing leg, the
patient is required to walk wearing the test socket to help the prosthetist to
study the gait. The patient gives the explanation of the feeling, and the test
socket is adjusted according to the requirements of the patient (LeMoyne, 2016).
permanent socket is then made. Because it is usually made from the
polypropylene, it can be vacuum formed over a mold in the same way as the test
socket. The stump shrinks after the surgery, and can stabilize after some time.
In this regard, the socket is normally replaced at that time, and thereafter
when the changes of the anatomy call for the change.
The fabrication of the
ways are used in manufacturing the prosthetic limb. Plastic pieces such as the
soft-foam pieces are use as the liners. The pylons that are made of the titanium
or aluminum are used in the process, and liquid metal is forced into the steel
die to bring a proper shape. The wooden pieces are normally planed, sawed and
drilled. These components are then put together in various ways using bolts, adhesives
and laminating (Dar,
Asgher, Malik, Adil, Shahzad & Ali, 2014).
entire limb is then assembled by the prosthetist using the tools such as the
torque, screwdrivers and others to bolt the device together. Afterwards, the
prosthetic fits the permanent socket to the patient, with the custom made limb
attached. The final adjustments are then made.
example of a typical artificial limb
The future developments
the research, the future developments of the mechanized artificial limbs will
greatly depend on the demand. The market for the low cost devices, the limited
functions will continue to expand in the effort of meeting the needs of the
developing world. At the same time, it is clear that innovative technologies
will continue to be adapted and be applied in the high performance artificial
limbs whose functions will more and more approximate the missing limb (Young & Ferris, 2017).
experts are being optimistic about the future of the prosthetic limbs, and they
agree that there is a huge room for improvement. An ideal mechanical artificial
limb should be easy for the patients to learn on how to use them, requires little
repair and replacement, and should be comfortable and easy to put on and take
off. Should be easily adjustable, look like the natural limbs, and need to easy
to clean (Young &
is a device that has been developed tat superimposes a grid on a CAT scan of
the stump in indicating the amount of pressure that the soft tissue will be
able to handle with little pain. Through the view in the computer model, the
prosthetic can design a socket minimizing the amount of soft tissue that is
displaced. The other development in the area of the mechanized artificial limbs
is the introduction of above- knee prosthesis that has a built-in computer and can
be programmed to match with the gait of the patient, making the process of walking
more automatic and natural (Young
& Ferris, 2017).
the discussed results of the research, it is clear that the improvements in the
development of mechanized artificial limbs has improved he life amputees. The
designs and the manufacturing of the artificial limbs is a multidisplinary
endeavor. The current designers of the artificial limbs have increased
understanding of the mechanics and mechanisms compared t6o the earlier
designers. The current artificial limbs have been developed with high quality
products, light weight materials, and this has increased the flexibility,
effectiveness and efficiency of their use. The innovation has been
computerized, and more improvements are still happening, and in the future,
more efficient artificial limbs will be developed.
Mechanized artificial limbs- this are limbs that
are made artificially to restore the degree of normal functioning of the
Prosthesis- an artificial body part such as a
CAT Scan- an X-ray image made using computerized
Prosthetist- this is a physician who assesses,
prescribe, designs, fits, monitors, and provides a therapy on the issues of
Amputee – This is a person who has had a limb
Limb- an arm or leg of a person