The mid-eighteenth century. By the nineteenth century pharmacists

The oldest examples of aspirin were found on papyrus in ancient Egypt and in clay tablets in ancient sumeria. These described medicines made from willow tree bark extract and plants rich in salicylate. Western medicine also used these medicines to reduce fevers around 400 B.C, used by Hippocrates. Willow bark extract became recognized for its potent effects on fever, pain, inflammation, etc. in the mid-eighteenth century. By the nineteenth century pharmacists were experimenting with and prescribing many chemicals related to salicylic acid, the main chemical of willow extract.In 1853, scientist Charles Frederic Gerhardt combined both acetyl chloride and sodium salicylate to produce acetylsalicylic acid. Other chemists, in the late 1800s, found the compound’s chemical structure, C9H8O4 (9 parts Carbon, 8 parts Hydrogen, 4 parts Oxygen), and found a more efficient method of synthesizing the chemical compound. In 1897, scientists at Bayer’s drug and dye firm investigated acetylsalicylic acid as a less-irritable medicine to take the place for the current common salicylate medicines, and the most efficient method of synthesizing the drug. By 1899, Bayer had named this drug Aspirin and sold it around the globe. Aspirin was Bayer’s brand name, but Bayer’s rights to the name were lost or sold in many parts of the world. Its popularity skyrocketed and so did its competition.The popularity of Aspirin declined after acetaminophen was created in 1956, and six years afterwards ibuprofen in 1962. Aspirin was later qualified as the best drug to stop clotting diseases. In the current times, Aspirin is used as a painkiller, and has been proven to help prevent heart disease. The three seeds that were used were mung bean, fenugreek, and split chickpeas. Mung beans are traditionally used in chinese and Indian cooking and is a traditional lentil used in daal. Mung Bean cultivation and domestication initially started in Persia and India. In India, archeological findings that date back to 4500 years ago say that mung bean was farmed and cultivated in areas like punjab and Haryana, but in Karnataka there is proof that it was found more than 4000 years ago. After the era of Swahili trade mung beans also came to be cultivated in Africa. When England took over India, they seized the farms and had the farms give the food to the English, which came through to the colonists after a while in circulating through England’s cooking.In 1971, Sir John Vane, at the time working at the Royal College of Surgeons of England, uncovered the mode of action of aspirin and related compounds, known as NSAIDs. This achievement ultimately got Sir John Vane, originally just John Vane, both the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 1982 and a knighthood, as this showed him as a noble. The drug that he found from the willow bark tree extract decelerates the process of growth for the prostaglandins in the body. Aspirin and most other NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, decelerate the synthesis of cyclooxygenase enzymes, which usually activate the production of the molecules of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins have a wide variety of effects, acting as molecules sending information to various places to make the body start a process for inflammation and being involved in sending information regarding pain to the brain and in internal temperature regulation. Their suppression explains the analgesic (relieves pain), anti-inflammatory, and fever-reducing effects that make NSAIDs so usable. NSAIDs also thin the blood and decelerate blood-clot formation through a similar mechanism, which is why aspirin has been proven to help with heart diseases.NSAIDs can have serious side effects when taken regularly or in large doses, most notably gastrointestinal symptoms, including ulcers and stomach bleeding. Not only do the acidic molecules irritate the gastrointestinal tract, but cyclooxygenase enzymes are found in abundance in the stomach lining, where the prostaglandins they dispense play a vital role for the stomach mucosa. Reye’s syndrome, a deadly flu-like ailment, has been connected with Aspirin, which is why aspirin is no longer used to treat symptoms that seem to act like the flu in younger children. Since the development of aspirin at the end of the 19th century, a host of other NSAIDs have flooded the market, including the common over the counter drug ‘ibuprofen’. Acetaminophen, closely related in its chemical structure to aspirin, has also become extremely popular as a pain reliever, in part because it causes little irritation to the lining of the stomach. But even though scientists have found that paracetamol also affects cyclooxygenase enzymes, it is not properly an NSAID: It works in a different manner and has no anti-inflammatory or blood clot-reducing properties. Aspirin’s new role in circulatory health has confirmed its place as one of the world’s most popular NSAIDs. Studies have suggested at more helpful uses for aspirin but they have yet to be proven to be real.Since the beginning of the human race, humans were hunter-gatherers. This meant that people were moving with the seasons to follow the supply of food. As the glaciers receded and plant life changed in response, it meant that the need to move so often became slightly less essential – though undoubtedly the lifestyle carried on for thousands of years as people sought to maximize their resource acquisition. Hunter-gatherer societies would have known which crops were best to exploit with each season.Its probable that people set camps up by the most abundant areas of crops. It is also likely that they had herds of animals they had migrate with them.Archaeologists and paleontologists have traced the origins of farming to around 10,000 years ago, to a place in the Indus Valley, and possibly as another place in China by the Yangtze River. It is known that humans first domesticated crops and later livestock in large enough numbers to recognize the signs of obvious usage.Early civilization can be considered a boom time in agricultural science and technology. Around 5500 BC, the Sumerian civilization of the Middle East and other early pre Greco-Roman civilizations understood the need for a specialized agricultural workforce for their societies to thrive. It is in this period that we saw the invention of irrigation amongst other things, and this specialised workforce, and focus on agricultural technology allowed the development of the first cities. In turn, these drove the first written laws and led to the development of complex societies. From this point of view, agriculture drives civilisation: including religious practices, social attitudes and legal codes.Ancient Egypt had one of the most complex societies of the ancient world before the rise of the Greek civilization, and it was mostly thanks to their agricultural system. The River Nile relied heavily on the seasons and each year, the river would flood its banks and part of the surrounding countryside. Their civilization and indeed their religious structure, was built around the life-giving nature of the River Nile and the kingdom’s heavy reliance on the river and delta system. Most of Egypt was desert with a few key oases, which means that the agriculture centered on a very small part of the country.The Greeks and Romans took much of their agricultural technology from other civilizations with which they had contact – most notably those of the ancient Near East such as Mesopotamia, via Sumeria. From Egypt, those societies took direct influence once the country was conquered by Alexander the Great and later by the Roman Republic. It was here at the birth of modern civilization that we saw true large-scale animal and plant agriculture. Technology may not have advanced a large deal, but the processes made agriculture efficient enough to sustain the empire’s large cities, making it a necessary industry.The Middle East had major developments in agricultural industries, but in the while Europe little had changed before the rise of the kingdoms in the 1000’s when the church was the main part of the upper class. There were extremely significant technological advances in this period for agriculture and they changed landscapes on a massive scale, floodplains being drained, wild woodlands having all trees cut down becoming plains, and bracken cleared for pasteurization. Also,The effects of aspirin has been a topic between health organizations, researchers, and scientists for years. Aspirin has been known to relieve people of pain, but in the while removing numerous amounts of nutrients from our body. Agriculture has been a studied topic for paleontologists and scientists on how long ago they can trace the markings of humans, both in China and by the Indus River. In brief, aspirin is a drug not meant for plants, and agriculture has been in our culture since it began.


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