The inquiry bon Syria reported the number of

The Syrian war broke out in March 2011 as a
prodemocracy protest in bid to release some teenagers who had been arrested and
tortured after they painted voluntarily slogans in the walls of the school. After
the police opened fire and killed the demonstrators, to what was termed as
peaceful protest, more people took to the streets. Inspired by the success of
the Arab spring in Tunisia and Egypt the citizens took to the streets to
demonstrate against the oppressive government of president Bashar-al-Assad. The
acts of government towards the demonstrators inflamed the resentment towards
Syria government which was fueled by consisted mostly of soldiers who had
defected from army with an aim of overthrowing the government.

      According to various human rights to human
rights group s and organizations, there has been a great deal of human rights
violation cases committed by both the government and the rebel group, with the
largest part being done by the government these are the crimes against humanity
where we had use of fire against unharmed civilians .door to door arrest
campaigns, shooting the medical personnel’s wh9o were trying to help the
wounded and raids in hospital. There were war crimes where civilians were
tortured and raped enforced disappearance and civilians suffering where they
blocked accesses to international monitor’s humanitarian groups and human
rights groups. The governments attack on the civilians shifted from sporadic
violence to targeting large scale killing using cluster bombs and chemical

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     The UN
commission of inquiry bon Syria reported the number of forced disappearance
remained high .the majority of disappearances reported by activists, human
rights observers, and international NGOs appeared to be politically motivated.
According to the United Nations activist groups, an estimated 470000 people
were killed over with 1.9 million wounded in this war .investigators from the
organizations of prohibition of chemical weapon found that chlorine was used
severally in attacking rebel areas. There is also an influx of refugees in
neighboring countries of Lebanon and Jordan. All these happenings in Syria begs
for the famous doctrine of the responsibility to protect .this being the
doctrine that permits the international community to intervene when the state
lacks or is unable to protect  i6ts
citizens when there is gross violation of human rights.

used in Syria during the violation of human rights

There were a number of treaties at play in Syria,
sub-regional, national, regional and global global level Syria is a
member of the United Nations this means some treaties are binding to it and
some are not. Syria has not yet signed the Rome statute that makes the use of
poisoners gas during the war to be considered as a war crime. Syria signed but
has yet to ratify the convention on biological 1925 Syria signed the
Geneva Convention which established the general rule for the treatment of the
civilians in wars specifically that noncombatants are not to be subjected to
murder, torture, rape or other cruel 1925 Syria signed the Geneva
gas protocol which regulates the use of poisoners gas between states incas4e of
civil war.

Issues of implementation

Violence in Syria has confirmed ongoing
international efforts to implement a cease fire in talks brokered by Russia,
turkey, and Iran by the United Nations. Government forces and their allies
deliberate and indiscriminate attacks on civilians .The Syrian government should immediately release human rights
defenders, Mazen Darwish, Hussein Ghareer and Hani
Al-Zitani, members of the Syrian Centre for Media and Freedom of Expression
(SCM), and drop all the charges against them. Another hearing of their trial
held on 18 November 2013 at the Anti-Terrorism Court in Damascus on alleged
terrorism charges brought against them by the Syrian Government’s Air Force
Intelligence. Reports confirmed that once again the trial was postponed to 27
January 2014, at the request of the prosecution which has failed to prove the
charges against them.

 Outcomes of the international treaties

Various factors
contributed to the non-application of responsibility to protect in Syria
Responsibility to protect was not applied in Syria because of the ties between
Russia and the government. Russia was said to be committed to Assad regime.
Finally the use of the responsibility to protect is hard because of tri-level
proxy war, these refers to war that is instigated by major powers but it itself
does not become involved. Also the existence of a military strong regime that
would prove futile for western world because they had no enough budget to
invest in.syria also has strong armed forces with credible air defense forces
an invention would prove to be difficult. There was issue on geopolitical
environment where the Arab league could not reach a consensus in favor of tough
action. The responsibility to protect was not applied none the less we cannot
ignore the initiative and efforts of our states and regional organizations to
try help civil war in Syria.
Likely end-game scenarios for Syria’s three-year-long civil
war are coming into view, even if the actual end of the conflict appears as
hopelessly far-off as ever. The collapse
of Assad would be a drawn-out affair involving the slow loss of a substantial
number of regime soldiers over a period of months. This outcome would only come
about through the rebels acquiring more advanced weaponry like portable
anti-aircraft missiles. 

The fall of the regime would lead to the
emergence of a multitude of competing fiefdoms in the country, ranging from
secular nationalist to ISIS enclaves. This would lead to a constant level of
violence between the various rebel factions, with ISIS emerging as the
strongest force in the region. 


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