genetic code for any given organism is made up of basic building blocks known
as nucleotides. Nucleotide sequencing, also known as genetic sequencing, is
extremely unique for different genes in different cells, creating their own set
of amino acid chains. These polypeptide sequences can control which genes get
expressed in the cell and differentiate organisms from one another. With
careful control, many scientists over the years have been able to harness the
ability to control genetic sequencing. As technology advances, this process can
become more efficient in speed and accuracy, which can contribute to
identifying mutations in certain sequences, as well as to developing medical
treatments that can target those sequences.
According to Elaine R. Mardis, author of the
article, “The impact of next-generation sequencing technology on genetics”,
these new technologies, “will provide an inexpensive, genome-wide sequence
readout as an endpoint to applications ranging from chromatin
immunoprecipitation, mutation mapping and polymorphism discovery to noncoding
RNA discovery” (Mardis, 1). The technology she discusses in this article
outlines a way to streamline the efficiency to which nucleotides can be synthesized,
sequencing in a parallel pattern. These sequences are produced from fragment
libraries, which enhance the genomic sequencing even further, by avoiding
certain types of cloning and amplification of the bacteria involved.
Another article that discusses these
fragment libraries, as well as other genetic sequencing technology is,
“Genome-wide genetic marker discovery and genotyping using next-generation
sequencing”, written by John W. Davey et. al. The article discusses how
advances in genetic sequencing have enabled scientists to identify genetic
markers more efficiently in different species. Genetic markers are specific
gene sequences that can be found on a chromosome that identifies a certain
species. As well as being able to identify genetic markers, this technology can
be used to increase the efficiency and accuracy of genetic mapping of DNA
sequences. The specific techniques involved include, “reduced-representation
sequencing using reduced-representation libraries (RRLs) or complexity
reduction of polymorphic sequences (CRoPS), restriction-site-associated DNA
sequencing (RAD-seq) and low coverage genotyping” (Davey et. al, 1). RAD markers are involved in this
RAD-sequencing, which can be related back to genetic mapping of populations and
specific species of organisms. These restriction sites can be isolated from
restriction enzymes found in DNA. Later research done in 2012 have added an
additional restriction enzyme to the isolation process, which has overall made
the process far more cost effective.
types of genetic sequencing can be applied to many types of research including
medical, population, and anthropological research. Isolating certain sequences
related to genetic mutations can be used in medical research, such as creating
something that can splice out that space of DNA, getting rid of the mutation.
Even forensic scientists can use genetic sequencing technology to give them
better insight into specific markers that could be crucial in later research.
Making these technologies more cost effective can not only make it more
accessible to different fields of study, but allow more research to be done on
the topic overall. This means that even more techniques can be produced and
enhanced to streamline how affective we can get read outs of DNA.