The Handwashing is the first lines of defense

The
cleanliness and personal hygiene of consumers are extremely important.
Cleanliness is intimately related to every other basic operating activity. The
cleaning process can prevent the accumulation of food residues and the growth
of microorganisms, thereby reducing spoilage. Sanitizing is the destruction of
pathogens that survive the cleaning process. Sanitizing is necessary because
items that look clean are not necessarily sanitized. Likewise, cleaning is
necessary because it is impossible to sanitize a soiled item. In Northern
Ireland, 71.1% of householders used detergent, 26.8% used disinfecting cleaning
agents and 2.1% did not use any washing agent (Kennedy
et al., 2005). Handwashing is the first lines of defense in food safety
also one of the most neglected areas of hygienic food operations. It removes
dirt, grease and harmful bacteria and viruses from our hands.  In total, 1,156 units were invited to
participate in the survey only 58.8 % washed their hands before handling food
or cooking (Junxiong Pang et al., 2015). Also,332
(97.6%) respondents knew the importance of hand washing before handling food
while 279 (84.1%) always wash hands before handling food (Aluko Olufemi Oludare et al.,2016). Apart from that, when harmful bacteria spread to food from
other food, surfaces, hands, or equipment called as cross contamination.
It can occur if the equipment first used for raw food
preparation then used for cooked or ready-to-eat food. Additionally,
cross-contamination was most likely to occur via the behavioral variation
between consumers in washing cutting board (Van
Asselt, De Jong, De Jonge & Nauta, 2008). Lastly, safe food tasting
is essential. It is necessary to use one utensil to taste and another to stir
food. Use the same utensil is transferring germs and saliva to the food.3.2 Food storage, defrost, reheatStoring is an important activity to check
in a food establishment for two reasons: food products rarely improve in
quality while in storage, and the risk of food contamination increases with
improper storage temperatures or times. Storing prevent valuable food from deterioration
and theft before uses them. There are few types of food storage. First, freezers
should operate at around -18°C or
lower. Food that has partially or fully thawed should never be re-frozen,
though some items may be frozen again after cooking. Frozen foods should
be kept solidly frozen until they are ready to be used (Cichy,
R. F. & Wood, P. J. 2008). Next, Refrigerated foods are cold, not
frozen. Cold foods should maintain at 4 °C or below. However, surveys in the United
Kingdom, where only 10% of consumers knew the correct refrigeration temperature
(Redmond and Grif?th,
2003). By keeping cold foods at 4 ° C or below, the growth of
harmful microorganisms can be reduced, and the storage life of the product can
be extended. Foods must be kept at 57°C or above when have
been cooled and then reheated (McSwane,
Linton & Pong, 1998).
Refrigeration phase is important as it is last line of defense against
bacterial growth (Kennedy,
J et al., 2005).  Besides, dry storage area should have a
moderate room temperature of 10°C
to 21°C and relative humidity of 50% to 60% to maximize the shelf life of the
foods stored there. The storage needs to be dry, cool, and well ventilated (Blanch, 2003). No matter in any storage, consumers should check the expiry
date on every food packaging is an important action. The expiry date is the date of food keeps its
microbiological and physical stability, as well as the nutrient content
declared on the label. This means that it is important to use this food before
the expiry date in order to obtain maximum nutritional value. (Habib, 2012) Furthermore, it is important to cool the food as quickly as
possible. The temperature range of 63 ° C to 5 ° C considered a “danger
zone,” which is the temperature range over which the harmful organisms can
flourish. It is recommended that food should not stay in this “danger
zone” for longer than two hours. Therefore, leftovers should be refrigerated
within two hours of cooking (McWilliams et al., 2004). Defrosting is the process of warming frozen food so
that the food can be eaten or prepared to serve. The
best to plan is defrosting in the refrigerator where it will remain at a safe,
constant temperature at 4°C
or below. Not all foods need must be placed in the refrigerator
or on the counter for defrosting. For example, foods that will be eaten at once
after defrosting can use the microwave. Similarly, frozen vegetables can be
placed in boiling water immediately after being removed from the freezer as a
method of defrosting. In Dublin, Ireland’s respondents
reported defrosting frozen meat at room temperature (56.2%), in the
refrigerator (23.4%), or in a
microwave (13.1%) (Kennedy, J et al., 2005).  Foods that have previously been
cooked, cooled, and stored may need to be reheated before consumption. The main
purpose of reheating is to make food more suitable for consumption. However,
reheating may also be an opportunity to kill any organisms that may have
contaminated the food after cooking, or that may have grown on food when cooled
or stored poorly (McWilliams et al., 2004).  3.3 Cook

Cooking can destroy or inactivate
some pathogens. The temperature, time, cooking method,
characteristics and the types of the food product can determine the success of
inactivation of pathogens. The fundamental areas preventing bacteria
from surviving and growing in food are temperature and time control. Recently,
there have been few recent studies on the handling and practice of food safety
among young adults in colleges and universities. In Saudi
college, more than 50% participated in the study of raw eggs and raw white
cheese, and 34% said they would not have the risk of food poisoning if they
kept it at room temperature for one day (Zeeshan, M
et al., 2017). Furthermore, 69% participants in California reported that
they rarely check whether the chicken completely cooked.  Most participants decided “fully
cooked” by appearance. Only 29% knew the correct temperature for chicken
was 165 ° F (Wendy, M, 2015). In addition, a food thermometer is important because it is
the only way to ensure food is cooked to safe cooking temperature.