The National Building Information Model Standard Project Committee defines BIM as:Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility. A BIM is a shared knowledge resource for information about a facility forming a reliable basis for decisions during its life-cycle; defined as existing from earliest conception to demolition.Project risk elimination Different examinations on the utilization of Building Information Modelling (BIM) have demonstrated that a safer worksite can be achieved due to the increase in communication and elimination of errors. Advantages such as the identification of building element collision in the Building information model can positively influence safety. For instance, rework in a high safety risk area which was just constructed, would put the construction workers in further risk. If the cause of the rework was identified before construction, the risk would have been reduced. As BIM enables people to experience the working of the building before completion, risks can be eliminated significantly. BIM improves the health and safety of the construction workers as preassembly of components in a controlled environment off the site is possible. BIM standards The Periodic Table of BIM is a guide to the steps needed to take for successful implementation of BIM.The seventh group of the periodic table is the Standards. STANDARDSThe Standards grouping takes in a range of standards, procedures and supplementary documents that will help in the formation and then implementation of a successful BIM strategy.Capital delivery phase PAS 1192-2:2013 is a specification for information management for the capital/ delivery phase of the construction projects using BIM. It was built based on the existing code of practice for the collaborative production of architectural, engineering and construction information, defined within BS 1192: 2007.The graphical data, non-graphical data and documents is collectively known as the project information model (PIM), these information/data are formed during the design and construction activities. Collaborative business relationships BS 11000 shows to eliminate pitfalls due poor communication. It defines roles and responsibilities and supports collaborative decision-making.BS 11000-2:2011 helps establish and improve collaborative relationships. Further information is given in BS1192:2007+A2:2016 Collaborative production of architectural, engineering and construction information. Code of practice.International standard – ISO 11000 has been developed based form BS 11000.Library objects BS 8541-1 , 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 provides recommendations to define the format and content for objects in the library to support project briefing, design, tendering, construction and the management of built assets. The focus of each part is as follows: BS 8541-1:2012 Library objects for architecture, engineering and construction. Identification and classification. Code of practice BS 8541-2:2011 Library objects for architecture, engineering and construction. Recommended 2D symbols of building elements for use in building information modelling BS 8541-3:2012 Library objects for architecture, engineering and construction. Shape and measurement. Code of practice BS 8541-4:2012 Library objects for architecture, engineering and construction. Attributes for specification and assessment. Code of practice BS851-5: 2015 Library objects for architecture, engineering and construction. Assemblies. Code of practiceBS8541-6: 2015 Library objects for architecture, engineering and construction. Product and facility declarations. Code of practice UNICLASS Codes & BIM toolkit Uniclass codes are a part of BIM toolkit project. Original version of it was released in 1997. Uniclass is a classification system which helps in structuring the project information into a recognised standard. The latest version of uniclass is uniclass 2015 which was developed by revising the original version to be more suitable for use with the modern construction industry practice and BIM. The uniclass 2015 provides -the construction industry with a unified classification system in which buildings, landscape and infrastructure can be classified under a single unified scheme.-Classification tables in a hierarchical format.-the numbering system used is flexible to accommodate future classification requirements-ISO 12006-2 compliant system that is mapped to New Rules of Measurement NRM 1 – Order of Cost Estimating and Cost Planning for Capital Building Works and also supports mapping to other classifications in the future. Using uniclass 2015, the structured information can be generated, used and retrieved throughout the lifecycle of the building. The Uniclass 2015 is structured according to ISO 12006-2 Building construction explain ?? . WHAT IT’S FORThe costing information, CAD layering, briefing and preparation of specification or other product documents is categorised in a divided table format, the uniclass 2015These tables can also be used for existing buildings and other assets in use, and maintaining asset management and facilities management information.THE TABLES The complete set of tables are broadly hierarchical, and they allow information about a project to be defined from the broadest to the most detailed view. The complexes table can be reduced to groupings of entities, activities and spaces depending on the particular use which is used to describe projects in overall terms and can be thought of in terms of the provision of an activity. Entities can be also described utilizing the spaces and activities tables. The main starting point are entities, in case of detailed design and construction. Elements are the main architectural components of an entity, for the other requirements in an entity such as heating or ventilation, drainage, the activities table enables these functions.Elements and activities are described in systems, The systems contain assets/ products Uniclass 2015 – Complexes, Entities, Spaces/Locations and Activities tablesUniclass 2015 – Entities, Elements/Functions, Systems and Products tablesThe table consists ofComplexesThe project in overall terms is described by complexes.Example a university containing lecture buildings, administration building, residential complexes, sporting and recreational facilities.Here the university is the complexEntitiesThe buildings in the above example are the entities. Each building provide areas for different activities to occur. Activities Activities is the work that is carried out in the building,entity or space. For example the lecture in a lecture building is the activity that is carried out in that building or entity. Spaces/ Location The buildings are provided with spaces for various different activities. but sometimes some spaces maybe suitable only for one specific activity like a kitchen or a toilet.ElementsThe main components of a structure are the elements. examples of elements in a building is floors,roofs and walls SystemsA collection of components form a system which that when put together make an element or to carry out a function.For example a hot water heating system is formed using a boiler, tank ,pipework ,radiators and etc.Productslastly, individual assets or products that are used to construct the system can be specified. Example the boiler or the tank or the radiators in the building ASSET MANAGEMENTDuring the operation and maintenance phase of the building, when a issue arises, cost and time can be saved considerably if accurate information/data of the plant and equipment is readily available on demand. The spaces in the facility or building can be listed using their classification codes, accompanied with all the relevant data and activities with them.The systems serving each space and the assets that form them can also be included by classification, thus it provides a complete data / information trail. When an assets life reaches the end and needs to be replaced, having the asset correctly classified makes it easy to identify which spaces are affected, so that an informed decision can be made. Integrated project Delivery & BIM integration Integrated Project delivery (IPD) is a project delivery approach that integrates people, systems , business structures and practices into a processes that collaboratively harness the talents and insights of all participants to optimise project results, increase value to the owner ,reduce waste , and maximise efficiency through all phases of design, fabrication and construction. (The American Institute of Architects) In traditional project delivery and contracting methods work is done in separate silos of responsibility that, in practice may lead to inefficiency, whenever work is transferred from one silo to another and also when projects are delivered traditionally participant success and project success are not always related. That is one or more project participants may succeed however in whole the project might be a failure. On the other hand integrated project delivery requires close cooperation among all the participants thus aligning the participants success to the the success of the project. In order to make use of the participant’s abilities and talents in the most favorable instant, IPD reorganises the role of the participant, the latent motivations, and series of activities on a project. In integrated project delivery success is focused on the project rather than the participants of the project as this approach is based on collaboration. As the focus is to share the goal and achieve the the collectively rather that achieving individual goals or expectations. The degree of common goals achieved measures the degree of success. Building information modelling and integrated project delivery. building information modeling (BIM ) is a three dimensional model which consists of data and project information linked to it. BIM is the most powerful tool to support integrated project delivery. as BIM combines information such as the design and fabrication information, erection instructions, project management data in a single database. facility management can also be done as the model and the data can be updated and used throughout the lifecycle of the building for space planning , monitoring long term energy performance, operation and maintenance, furnishing and etc. BIM is not used consistently in the industry at present as it is an evolving technology. examples of this may be that for a small project or a part of a bigger project may utilise a single model whereas large complex projects may depend on many interconnected models developed by different speciality participants. most of the major fabricator models interact with the design model to produce fabrication information directly and may also be used to coordinate conflicts as the design and purchasing proceed simultaneously. when compared with the traditional practices , the contractor’s work model can reduce material waste and time by interacting with the design model to give scheduling to pre build the project and also provide construction staging in model form far in advance of the actual construction. these BIM models also gives provisions for more accurate costing and estimating in the earlier stages of the project.Efficient development of extremely complex projects in different ways that might not be usually possible in certain constraints of site time or finance can be achieved using BIM. BIM is a tool for project delivery not a method, but integrated project delivery methods work along with BIM positively influencing the tools capabilities in the project.A understanding of how the model will be assessed, developed ,used and how the information will be exchanged between the models and the participants must be agreed by the IPD project team. without this understanding, incorrect usage of the model for unintended purpose may occur. Challenges in IPD The integration is heavily relied on the the collaboration between the participants and for the decision making certain level of equality must be maintained.