“The controlled by just a single party. The

“The greatest victory is that which requires no
battle” (The Art of War; Sun Tzu)  the  typical concept of a war implies an armed
conflict among political entities to gain  peace. This is the shape taken by the two
greatest wars in history, opposing two political blocks and mobilizing over 700
million soldiers/troops together. However, new types of combat have appeared in
recent decades. The cold war; for example, has applied unprecedented forms of
battle while conflicts of decolonization expand their horizons to new shapes
and actors. More recently, wars have further evolved, adopting new shapes and
aspects which fascinated the media. This transforms terrorism into today’s most
infamous form of war. The “New Wars” is an expression that represents warfare
in the Post-Cold war era.

“New Wars” is an expression that Mary Kaldor
developed. Mary Kaldor is a professor at the London school of economics. She is
an author’s whose books study the
different aspects of war. Throughout the 1980’s and the 1990’s, noticeably in Africa and Eastern
Europe in specific, new forms of violence
began to prevail. Terrorism was described by the
military during the cold war under the term “low
intensity” conflict as well as used by
different authors in the term of ‘peoples war’ by Holsti, or “transnational wars”
by Duffield.

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What differentiates the cold war from the
previous ones? First of all, cold wars
distinguish themselves by their nature as they are based on indirect conflict
rather than physical combat such as shooting and bombing. Whereas during World war 1 and World war 2, there has been direct
armed conflict between 2 political entities, the Cold War opposed 2 nations,
the Americans and the Soviets with no set battle-ground. While the United States functioned mostly
on the
basis of a democratic government and its economy on free enterprise, the Soviet
Union was a communist State where property and production were controlled by just a single
party. The opposing system of the democratic and the communist, engaged
the respective nations in a conflict involves
several spheres of society: economic, political and cultural. The Old wars were fought by armed forces of states. The New
Wars are fought by a fusion of state and non-state actors. Kaldor states that
New Wars need to be known in terms of today’s process of globalization (Mary
Kaldor New and Old War). Mary Kaldor defines Old War as a traditional warfare,
where conflicts are usually between interstates, which play an important role
in funding and running the war.

According to Mary Kaldor, the “New
Wars” were not in fact that recent . What’s different between the “Old Wars”
from the “New Wars”, is that globalization and technology are growing. Kaldor
states that the war that took place in Iraq is indeed a ‘new kind of war’ and still
uses new technology such as satellite systems. “New Wars” are the wars of the globalization
era which usually happen in places that were significantly weakened (Kaldor, M. (2013). ), furthermore ,  the
New and the Old Wars were not fought for the same reasons. Kaldor expressed the
differences between the two Wars by stating the multiple reasons the conflict
happened; “Actors:
Old wars were fought by the regular
armed forces of states. New wars are fought by varying combinations of networks
of state and non-state actors.–. Goals: Old wars were fought for
geopolitical interests or for ideology (democracy or socialism). New wars are
fought in the name of identity (ethnic, religious or tribal). Finance: Old
wars were largely financed by states (taxation or by outside patrons). In weak
states, tax revenue is falling and new forms of predatory private finance
include loot and pillage, ‘taxation’ of humanitarian aid, Diaspora support,
kidnapping, or smuggling in oil, diamonds, drugs, people, etc. It is sometimes
argued that new wars are motivated by economic gain. Methods:
In old wars, battle was the decisive encounter. The method of waging war consisted of capturing territory through
military means. In new wars, battles are rare and territory is captured through
political means, through control of the population) (Kaldor,
M. (2013). ) The most common criticism
of ‘new wars’ discusses that new wars are not new. It can be said that the Cold
war made it hard to analyze ‘small wars’, many of the features of new wars
related with weak states are found in early modern period and that incidents like
mass rape, banditry forced the population to move. Many of the same aspect of
new wars are found in previous wars. It can be argued that there are some new
elements. The main elements are of course globalization and technology, which
has made it a symmetrical war (war between enemies that have the same armory)
An example  is the  Gulf war which was  between Iran and Iraq.

Edward Newman is a British
Political scientist who shares interests with Mary Kaldor. He’s written
multiple debates about New Wars.

According to Newman, New Wars are
represented by the transformation of society and the state failure due to
liberal economic forces; private armies and criminal warlords often organized according
to some form of identity, and gives rise to competition over natural resources.

He explains that ethnic and religious conflicts are more characteristics of new
wars that political ideology. The Bosnian civil war was a typical example. “The
literature of the “New Wars” provides a great service in explaining patterns of
contemporary conficlt, and especially in drawing attention to the social and
economic aspects of conflitcs and the relationship between security and
development however much of this is not new all of the factor that characterize
have been present to varying degrees, throughout the last 100 years” . (Newman, E. (2004). )   The fighting was represented by mandatory
human displacement, the violation of human rights and the politics of ethnic
identity. Edward Newman states: “Globalization is an important component of the
political economy of New Wars, and the starting point is that the ages of
globalization is characterized by a gradual erosion of state authority.” (Newman, E. (2004). ). In Kaldor’s eyes, wars have been created based on globalization
that have formed an identity crisis where people who crave power believe they
need to fight for what they call a “Identity War”. She also discusses that
society has been separated due to globalization which is divided into two
groups, where some people are benefiting from the result of globalization and
some people who don’t; those people are usually left out of society but tend to
make their way back by creating their own identity. 


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