The categorized as the intermittent sources of energy,

The global trend towards the adaptation of distributed energy resources (DER) especially renewables is increasing considerably to realize the concept of the smart grid. According to Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century (REN21), by the end of 2016, the estimated installed renewable power capacity across the globe was 2017GW, which increased by 8.67 percent relative to the installed capacity of the previous year which was 1856GW 1.

Today, the motivation for integration of renewables to global energy network is not only to meet the endlessly increasing energy demand but also to improve the energy availability, reliability, security, and quality, and to compensate the adverse impact of fossil fuels and nuclear energy on global warming. 2

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Among the renewable energy sources, the solar photovoltaic (PV), for the first time remained on the top and accounted for around 47% of the newly installed renewable power capacity in 2016. Wind and hydropower accounted for most of the remainder with a contribution of almost 34% and hydropower 15.5%, respectively. 1

Add a curve showing installed and predicted capacity of PV

Germany, China, Italy, Japan, and United States are the leading countries in solar PV installed capacity 1; however, there are far more geographical areas in the world (i.e. Africa) that have the required potential to develop and grow PV systems Elahidoost’s thesis.


PV panels are connected in series and parallel combination to achieve desired voltage and current levels, respectively. But the efficiency of whole PV systems is affected badly due to partial shading on a some of the PV panels. Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) allows integration of PV panels/strings in to its submodule which allows the maximum power point tracking of each individual PV panel/string.

Since the PV systems are categorized as the intermittent sources of energy, and the yield of the PV systems is in the form of direct current and voltage, implementation of an interface between the grid and PV to regulate frequency and voltage based on the grid codes and standards is inevitable. As a result, state of the art modular multilevel converters (MMC) having unique characteristics and specifications can be considered as one of the most convincing alternatives to fulfill the mentioned objective

Energy storage systems are well-known solutions to overcome the intermittent nature of PV systems. In this report a novel topology for the interconnection of PV and battery energy storage is introduced and evaluated through Simulink simulations. The result shows the effectiveness of the proposed topology.

Fossil fuel power plants convert a portion of input energy into electricity, as a considerable portion of input energy contribute to heat losses. Though Combined heat and power (CHP) utilizes some of this heat, but globally such heat losses are enormous.

In the case of renewable power generation, electricity is generated directly from wind, solar irradiance, and from running or elevated water. Although 100% of the input is not converted into electricity, the electricity generated is considered primary energy according to the physical energy content method (as explained in section 4.2 of our main report), and the wind, sun or water not captured is never counted as part of the energy system. Hence, with a growing proportion of renewable power generation in the energy mix, losses to heat in the production of energy will decline.

Renewables will increasingly dominate world electricity generation — with solar PV and wind each having a 36% share, and two-thirds of wind power coming from onshore by 2050. With this high amount of variable power, the stability of the system will become crucial — a topic we address extensively in the Renewables, Power & Energy Use supplement to this main publication. 2


Given that roughly 25% of global greenhouse (GHG) emissions come from the electricity sector, this is a very positive development. The transport sector consumes about 27% of energy demand, but is roughly responsible for 14% of GHG emissions. This compares relatively well to industry, consuming about 28% of energy demand and being responsible for 21% of GHG emissions. With buildings consuming approximately 34% of energy demand, being responsible for 6% of GHG emissions, and urbanization increasing in most areas of the world, innovative technologies and design in urban areas can be instrumental in achieving long-term sustainability of the global energy system. 3

·         Concerns about growing energy demand and issues of fossil fuels like depletion and environmental hazards, such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emission

·         Advantages and promotion (tariff for selling power ) of renewable energy sources especially photovoltaic

·         Code installed PV production and its rise as compared to other sources


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