The as well as the human and technical

            The meaning of safety is to prevent loss, where loss can
mean losing a life, money, or reputation. To prevent a loss, the history of
aviation safety has progressed by coming up with a safety program that assist
organizations in having an appropriate level of safety. Safety is now looked at
as more than one single problem, instead it takes everything, the individual, organization,
and technical difficulties and assess how to reduce the risk with these factors.


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            An SMS is a system that can keep errors out of an organization
by providing affective safety strategies. It can prevent loss within a company
by establishing improved safety performances by using a “performance based approach”
(USJHSIT, 2009). An SMS allows for safety to evolve from being reactive to proactive
because it allows an organization to plan to avoid issues.

Safety Management System (SMS)

            The organizational era is from the mid-1990s to the
present day. Within this era, aviation safety focused on organizational factor
as well as the human and technical factors. The concept of the “organizational
accident” was introduced, which considered the effect of organizational culture
and policies on the effectiveness of safety risk controls (ICAO, 2013). Data is
now collected and analyzed by using practical methodologies so that safety risk
can be monitored and safety issues can be detected.     This formulated approach is called a Safety Management System

Organizational Era

            The human factors era started in the early 1970s an ended
in the mid-1990s. During the 1970s aviation accidents were being reduced
because of the technological advances and improvements that were being made to
safety regulations. Aviation was starting to feel safer and more reliable. Soon,
however, human factors started to become a recurring factor in aviation
accidents. This resulted in the Human Factors study, which focused on the human
conditions that cause or contribute to accidents. In the human factors era, the
focus was on the individual, when the focus should have been on the operational
and organization context.

Human Factors Era

            The history of aviation safety is divided into three
eras: the technical era, the human factors era, and the organization era. The
technical era dates back from the early 1900s to the late 1960s. It was in this
era that aviation first emerged. The safety deficiencies in this era were
blamed on technical factors. The first step in decreasing accident in aviation
did not occur until the early 1950s, when technological improvements were
finally being placed on the aircraft. Within the technical era, aviation was
used as a tool during battle in the two World Wars and as a method of mass

Technical Era

            The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
describes aviation safety to be “the state in which the possibility of harm to
persons or of property damage is reduced to, and maintained at or below, an
acceptable level through a continuing process of hazard identification and
safety risk management” (ICAO, 2013). To prevent accidents in aviation, the
failures of past accidents must be taught, along with Safety Management Systems
(SMS). This research will describe how the concept of aviation safety has
changed over the past 100 years and how safety is prevalent today.

of Aviation Safety


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