The argued that during the history of civilizations

following essay is an entry discussing and offering various criticism on
Marxism and Karl Marx’s socialist theories, mainly the idea portrait in ‘The
Communist Manifesto’.


each according to his abilities to each according to his needs” is a slogan from
Karl Marx’s ‘Critique of the Gotha program’ that simplifies the
basis on which Karl Marx build his political argument. Karl Marx was a major
socialist figure that emerged in the 19th Century and his ideas were
the basis of various communist states throughout the past few decades.  Karl Marx ideologies find basis in George Hegel’s
historical analysis found in ‘The Phenomenology of the Spirit’ which Marx studied
during his years in the University of Bonn. Such thoughts included the
opposition to Christianity and the condemnation of the Prussian rulers, which
he wrote about in the liberal newspaper the ‘Rherinische Zeitung’, which later
was shut down by the Prussian government. Marx shortly after started to reject
Hegel’s abstract and idealistic philosophy and moved on to argue a
materialistic adaptation if Hegel’s ideas.

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Unlike Hegel’s belief that the changes that occurred
throughout history were related to the restriction of freedom of the civils, Marx
believed that the “history of all hitherto existing society is the history of
class struggle”. With this statement, Marx opens the first part of ‘The Communist
Manifesto’, ‘Bourgeois and Proletarian’. He argued that during the history of civilizations
there was one major common factor, that is the conflict between different social
classes, such as the Freeman and the Slave, Patrician and the Plebeian, the
Lord and the Serf and The Guild Master and the Journeyman. The Manifesto claims
that society was back then finally simplified into two classes in direct
conflict. The Bourgeoisie, the capital-owning class and The Proletariat, the
working class. He accuses that the modern day drifted away from “antagonism”
and instead it “established new classes, new conditions and new forms of struggle”.
What Marx seems to not understand however is that social classes’ structure is more
complicated than the two social categorizes he identifies. At this stage, Marx misidentifies
the presence of small population that made up the upper middle-class. He
describes the middle-class as a simplified version of class antagonism and that
the middle class was taken over by the industrial businessman, “The Modern

The bourgeoisie has ended all “feudal,
patriarchal, idyllic relations”. Meaning that it has abolished the distinction
between the “bound man and his natural superiors” and personal worth is now valued
with the exchange values. Some might argue that this is economically inaccurate
for the simple reason that other factors are taken into consideration when valuing
the importance of a factor. Basic economical concepts show that besides the capital,
supply and demand are also key features when valuing anything, in this case the
demand and the incompetence of the labourer.  

debates that what before was hidden by political and religious “illusions” are
being open to the public shamelessly. He then says that the bourgeoisie need
traditional methods to survive and therefore try to expand their market territory
by sustaining a global connection. Marx believes that this is done in a way to
make sovereignty less manageable, which leads to the concentration of wealth and
the dependence on the capitalist companies. Therefore the ‘Means of Production’
on which the bourgeoisie companies are build originate from feudal societies,
and at some point, feudal relations “hindered production rather than advance it,
resulting in the rise to power of the bourgeoisie. Furthermore, he then says a
commercial crisis id due to arise as a result of over-production. Here is where
the manifesto starts addressing the Proletariat, and he believes that the
proletariats are becoming slaves of the manufacture industry and the worker is
being replaced by machinery. With the fear of this, Marx encourages all workers
to unite and form their own unions, as he believes that unions formed by socialist
activists have ingenuine interests. He claims that the workers within these
unions are not fighting their own enemy, the capitalists, but instead standing
with the enemy of the proletariat enemy. With this in mind, he suggests that
the proletarians destroy private property as they do not own their own
property. This might be considered an unjust statement as Marx did not take
into consideration the workers who owned their own houses, fields, farms (etc..). 


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