Temperatures the corner, Americans bought automobiles more than

Temperatures worldwide have continued to surge exponentially over the last century, causing an epidemic known as global warming. On January 26, 1978, a blizzard battered the Ohio River Valley in the United States. Approximately 32 years later, Germany suffered through a catastrophic snowstorm. From 1880 to 2010, average temperatures have risen 14.63 degrees Celsius.Though the gap may appear small, the difference between the average temperature made a significant difference. The first 100 years of the data set presented a 0.48 degree increase; however, the last 30 years showed a nearly identical increase of 0.43 degrees Celsius. Therefore, the Earth has experienced a similar change in 70 less years. (Source) Besides the aforementioned statistics, science consistently supports the warning of the Earth.. Global warming, a naturally occurring event, has shown progressions due to human contributions and pollutants, which nature demonstrates through change. (Source)Amanda MacMillan states, “The country’s second-largest source of carbon pollution is the transportation sector, which generates about 1.7 billion tons of carbon dioxide emissions per year.” Henry Ford created the model-T Ford, an automobile first produced in 1908. In order to manage the supply and demand ratio, Ford invented the assembly line which led to the creation of mass production. With more cars available and the “roaring twenties” creeping around the corner, Americans bought automobiles more than ever before.  MacMillan continues, “When humans burn coal, oil, and gas to generate electricity or drive our cars, carbon dioxide gets released into the atmosphere, which traps heat.”  As scientists measure the weight of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, they  see a clear boost in the number of lighter molecules. The lighter molecules link directly to fossil fuels and deforestation sources, which show the usage of these items correlate to the rising temperatures. These starting points correspond closely to the known trend in emissions. As production and population grow, the amount of transportation and fossil fuels burned increases. Scientists can tell that fossil fuel emissions comprise the largest source of the acceleration in pollutants since the pre-industrial era. Emissions of heat-trapping gases from human activities have caused most of the progression in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-twentieth century (“How Do We Know”).The industrial activities that the United State’s modern civilization depends upon have raised atmospheric carbon dioxide levels from 280 parts per million to 400 parts per million in the last 150 years (“Blanket”). In the late 1920’s, the ozone layer experienced inordinate depletion. The layer, which thins due to the release of chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, helps control and maintain the Earth’s natural temperature (“Ozone Layer”). The most common source of CFCs includes the manufacturing of aerosol sprays, blowing agents for foams, and packing materials such as solvents and refrigerants (Elkins). When scientists started to research CFCs, emissions from them had already caused 80% of total stratospheric ozone depletion. Scientists then discovered that when ultraviolet radiation hits the CFCs, they react violently; chlorine molecules break away because of this. The violent reaction also causes the remaining molecules of the CFC to steal an oxygen molecule from the ozone, destroying part of the stratosphere (“Chlorofluorocarbons”). Chlorofluorocarbons begin consuming the ozone layer once they enter into the atmosphere. Ozone depletion, an incredibly difficult phenomenon to reform once it breaks apart, will take years to replenish itself. (“Ozone Layer”) In California, two chemists, Professor F. Sherwood Rowland and Dr. Mario Molina, showed that the CFCs have the potential to become a major source of inorganic chlorine in the stratosphere, following decomposition by ultraviolet radiation. Some of the released chlorine from CFCs destroys the ozone in the stratosphere (Elkins). However, before all of this energy can escape, greenhouse gases in the atmosphere absorb some of it and make the atmosphere warmer. Greenhouse gases keep the Earth warm through a process called the Greenhouse Effect (The Greenhouse Effect). Greenhouse gases absorb energy directly from the sun and trap it inside of Earth’s atmosphere, allowing less heat back into space (“Greenhouse Gases”). China has taken the lead in global warming pollution, producing about 28% of all carbon dioxide emissions, with The United States behind them at 16%. Although China and the United States dominate the world in mass production, the amount of pollution each country releases into the air and waterways remains equally astounding. Coal-burning power plants unnecessary produce the most carbon pollution in the United States (MacMillan). These power plants supply electricity to millions of Americans. The government has the ability to curve the effects of pollution on the stratosphere through  the passage of legislation. Massachusetts recently brought a new bill to the public’s attention. According to Bill S.1849, Section 1, “The purpose of this chapter is to steadily transition the commonwealth to 100% clean, renewable energy by 2050 in order to (1) avoid pollution of our air, water and land, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and other polluting and dangerous forms of energy.” (Eldridge) The US holds the power for change. However, if congressmen press to install solar panels nationwide, coal consumption may drop in half. Over the last few centuries, scientists have noticed atmospheric concentrations of both the natural and manmade rising due to the industrial revolution (“Greenhouse Gases Intro”). This has begun to impact a part of the atmosphere known as the ozone layer. Holding the characteristics of a sponge, the ozone layer absorbs bits of radiation hitting the Earth from the sun. The ozone layer acts as a shield for life on Earth (“Ozone Layer”). Exhaust emissions from cars and factories lead to higher levels of nitrogen and carbon molecules in the air, producing ozone when acted upon by sunlight (“Greenhouse Gases”). Earth becomes naturally warmed by the ozone; therefore, by adding additional nitrogen and carbon into the air, the ozone layer absorbs more heat, causing the Earth to bake. Harmful ultraviolet radiation can cause biological damage to plants and animals. The stratosphere absorbs the radiation when it interacts with the stratosphere. A loss in ozone causes more harmful ultraviolet light to reach Earth’s surface (Elkins). Year after year, scientists put forth massive amounts of effort into researching the presence of global warming. A majority of their research provides evidence that Earth has gradually become warmer. Now, they encourage the world population to take precautions to rectify this phenomenon. One method to combat climate change includes switching from burning fossil fuels in order to obtain energy, to using a variety of clean sources available (“Technologies”). In the early twentieth century, the industrial revolution helped to create steam engines, airplanes, automobiles, and mass production, causing the amount of air pollution to increase at an alarming rate. Fossil fuels became frequently used to run power plants, cars, trains, oil rigs, and most machines needing electricity. When burned, fossil fuels release huge amounts of pollutants in the air. This makes them the  primary source of air pollution. When the industrial revolution began, fossil fuels became popular as the only widely available resource for electricity. However, with new to new energy-efficient technology, scientists can develop new ways to modernize power plants, generate cleaner electricity, and burn less gasoline. The world faces the challenge of adopting these new systems. (MacMillan) Using cleaner energy may sound like an easy decision; however, many countries refuse to change the ways of the past due to the cost of innovation. Rising temperatures affect Earth more than humans can comprehend. From melting ice caps  to deforestation, Earth faces significant ecological decay. Scientists believe that temperatures will rise eight degrees Fahrenheit before the year 2100 if global emissions continue their current path (“Effects”). When pollution fogs the air, the sunlight bounces off  nitrogen and carbon particles, warming the Earth. The warmer atmosphere causes the planet’s snowpacks, glaciers, and sea and freshwater ice to melt rapidly. When the usual frozen liquid melts, it runs into oceans, rivers, and other waterways. This contributes to the unprecedented rising of sea level (“Climate Change”). The global sea level rose eight inches in the past year, with most of the warming occurring in the past thirty-five years. The top seven hundred meters of ocean has shown 0.302 degrees Fahrenheit warming since 1969. (“Rise”) The oceans consistently heat up, expand, and become more acidic. Nearly a third of carbon dioxide emissions end up in the oceans (“Climate Change”). Over the last fifty years, the number of cold days and record-low temperatures in various locations have declined, while the number of hot days increased (“Air Temperature”). Wildfires occur more now than ever before. As the Earth gets warmer and droughts increase, wildfires will likely occur more and cause a greater amount of damage (“Forests”). More than one-third of 677 species examined, exhibited effects through climate change. Vertebrates seem to disappear 114 times faster than previous extinction rates would cause, according to a 2015 study (“Effects”). Wildlife says, “More than 30% of amphibian species have been recognized as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered. Some animal species have shifted toward higher latitudes.” Scientists have documented a six-fold increase in the past two decades, which they attributed to global warming (“Western Forests”). In conclusion, temperatures worldwide have continued to increase over the last century and will continue to rise in the future if the citizens of Earth do not decide to change their ways. The United States Environmental Protection Agency states, “Increases in average global temperatures are expected to be within the range of 0.5°F to 8.6°F by 2100, with a likely increase of at least 2.7°F for all scenarios except the one representing the most aggressive mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions.” Temperatures will likely increase at least twice as much in the next one hundred years as it did in the previous century. Though the warming will not completely halt due to the heat projection from the oceans, the world’s population can prevent Earth from becoming hotter. Therefore, the people of the world need to take precautions to cease the natural heating of the biosphere in which humans live.


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