Solutions for Acid RainDefinitionAcid rain is rain or another form of precipitation with a high concentration of acids which contains sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides that mainly result from the combustion of fossil fuels. It has a destructive effect on plant, marine life, buildings, etc. (Collins English Dictionary, no date; study.com/academy/lesson/acid-rain-effects-causes-quiz.html). CausesAcid rain is caused by multiple factors, including both natural and human sources. Overall, the impact of human activities on acid rain is more significant than natural sources. The amount of sulfate dioxide or nitrogen oxide natural causes release at one time may be larger, but the long-term effects human activity have are greater. For example, volcanic eruption releases a large amount of water and gases such as CO2, SO2, HCl which will then react with water vapor to precipitate as acid rain. Lighting bolts provide nitrogen and oxygen enough energy to react and create nitrogen oxide. Power plants release the majority of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides when they burn fossil fuels, such as coal, to produce electricity. EffectsAquatic environments, particularly streams and lakes are most affected by acid rain. The difference in soil buffering capacity provides the reason why aquatic environments appear to be harmed intensely than other areas. Unlike the soils of forests which have the ability to buffer the acidity levels, water soils have limited ability to neutralize acidic compounds. Moreover, acidic rainwater can leach aluminum from soil clay particles and then flow into streams and lakes. As more acid is introduced to the ecosystem, the more aluminum is released. Most organisms are acid-sensitive and will be lost as the pH declines. Some plants and animals are able to tolerate acidic waters and moderate amounts of aluminum, but even if they can tolerate moderately acidic water, its prey may not. SolutionsEnvironmental Protection Agency(EPA)’s Acid Rain Program: The Acid Rain Program (ARP) was established as the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments was passed by the congress. The fundamental goal of the program is to prevent or reduce acid rain, and therefore the program limits the amount of sulfur dioxide that power plants can release. In other words, major emission reductions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are required. (https://www.epa.gov/airmarkets/acid-rain-program)The project has shown significant progress, it achieved emission reductions, met environmental goals, and improved human health. The ARP introduced a system using market-based incentives of allowing trading. Reducing emissions using a market-based system provides regulated sources with the flexibility to select the most cost-effective approach to reduce emissions. This method enforced businesses to follow the policy to increase their market share, profit and gain benefits in terms of trading. According to the diagram and status provided by EPA, it is clearly shown that the amount of sulfate emitted has decreased in years 2009 to 2011 compared to 1989 to 1991 (www.epa.gov/airmarkets/acid-rain-program). Pollutants emitted by midwestern and northeastern America have been reduced from 30kg/ha to 16kg/ha (14kg/ha decrease) on average. (amount of sulfur dioxide emitted from 1989-1991 to 2009-2011, https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/styles/large/public/2015-07/mean-wet-sulfate.png)However, there are also negative aspects of ARP. First the foremost, the project is limited to the territory of America. To have an effect on the globe, the project should expand in terms of scale, reaching all countries and especially countries that are a major producer of sulfur dioxide and nitrate oxide. Thus, it has to be discussed in international communities and lead to taking action. Overall the ARP has shown its effectiveness by the clear decline of the amount of sulfur dioxide emitted by businesses. The policy should be kept, meaning to maintain current emission rates in America, and reorganized to increase its scale internationally. Electric Cars (EV): This solution suggests that people use environment friendly vehicles; it is differentiated with EPA’s Acid Rain Project since the subject is not a particular community/organization, but individuals and vehicle companies. Vehicles are a major source of pollutants, as it releases exhausts such as nitrogen oxide and increases in terms of number. To resolve this problem, car manufacturers introduced electric cars / vehicles (EV). EV is a type of transportation powered by energy stored in rechargeable batteries.(https://28oa9i1t08037ue3m1l0i861-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Screen-Shot-2015-05-28-at-6.06.20-PM.png)Using electic cars could possibly bring a variety of positive effects. First the foremost, electric cars obtain power from a rechargeable battery, or a modified internal combustion engine, rather than internal combustion engines which consume fossil fuel. Gradually, it would reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. Secondly, it is cleaner than conventional vehicles: the total CO2 emissions from a plug-in EV are likely to be about half of those from a conventional internal combustion engine gasoline vehicle. Along with this, reducing use of fossil fuels will lead to decline in greenhouse gas production. EV are forcasted to release 25% fewer atmospheric pollutants compared to fossil fuel-powered vehicles. Lastly, fuel savings by using EV exceed extra electric expensive. It is said to costs $30 driving an electric vehicle 12000 miles annually and earn fuel savings of $97. (recyclenation.com/2011/01/electric-vehicle-recycling-pros-cons/, 11 Jan. 2011.)On the other hand, EV have disadvantages as well. Technical problems are the main reasons, and this including driving range, speed and recharging time. EV are limited by range and speed between 50-100 miles and have to be recharged. The bigger problem here is the duration of recharging time. It only takes a few minutes to recharge fossil fuel-powered cars, an electric car takes apporximately 4-6 hours. Thus, a majority of places do not have electric fueling stations, meaning there will be hardships recharging the car. Other issues are that models of electric cars are very expensive, which makes it hard for low and middle-classes to afford EV. (www.conserve-energy-future.com/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-electric-cars.php., 24 Dec 2016)Overall, the idea of consuming EV instead of internal combustion engines is innovative, but it has a lot of obstacles associated with it. Currently the industry is new and still in the stage of making technical progress, causing the prices increase. Many are cannot afford EV or do not feel the need to change cars to EV paying that much. To improve this solution, governments should provide money saving initiatives which will then encourage citizens to buy an electric car.