Sexual themselves from STI’s is by not having

Sexual Risk Taking Causes Poor
health

Sexual
risk taking is  defined as the increased
risk of a negative outcome, which can take two pathways: risky sexual behaviours
are those which increase the chance of contracting or transmitting disease, or increase
the chance of the occurrence of unwanted pregnancy. They
include having sex at an early age, having multiple sexual partners, having sex
while under the influence of alcohol or drugs, and unprotected sexual behaviours
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010).

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Therefore
I believe that it is vitally important to educate individual’s about safe
sexual behaviours as this can prevent disease and maintain a healthy life as
sexual risk taking has proven to cause a high morbidity of sexually transmitted
infections  , which are infections  that are passed on from person to person  through intimate physical contact.  ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
2010).

In  England in 2016 statistics have been carried
out by the government and it has been discovered that there were approximately 420,000
diagnoses of (STIs) (infographic : gov.uk ) .

Similarly
it was discovered that STI’s are more prevalent in the younger population aged
15-24..I believe that the main reason for this is that the adolescent and young
adults are uneducated about safe sexual behaviours and are perhaps peer
pressured into engaging in such behaviours causing  them to become sexually active at an early age
,therefore exposing themselves to infections and diseases as they do not know
how to prevent sexual disease from occurring.( infographic : gov.uk ).

According
to centres for disease control and prevention 
the best way one can protect themselves from STI’s is by not having sex
, however if one does decide to engage in sexual activity the use of condoms is
recommended in order to reduce the risk of STI transmission. It is advised that
individual’s should reduce the number of sex partners ,similarly mutual monogamy
is believed to reduce the risk of STI’s .

Vaccination
has proven to minimise the risk of  hepatitis B and HPV .Hepatitis B is a viral
infection that attacks the liver and is transmitted through the infected
individual’s bodily fluids and blood , one of the possible  routes of transmission of hepatitis B is
through sex especially evident in unvaccinated men who have sex with men and
heterosexual persons with multiple sex partners or contact with sex worker
according to (WHO).  Therefore receiving
immunisation against it  has been proven
to reduce the number of hepatitis B . In Ireland all babies once they are born
they are given the hepatitis B vaccine   as
a  part of  6 in 1 vaccine that is given  to them at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. ( HSE)
This is a preliminary example of implementing the Ottawa charter as a frame to
develop public health policies .

Similarly
vaccination against the HPV has proven to be effective as it reduces the risk
of developing cancer as a result of the human papillomavirus infection , in the
united states according to centres for disease 
control and prevention nearly 80 million people are infected with the
HPV infection and it is estimated that 14 million people including teens get
affected each year .We can see good use of the HPV vaccine in Ireland as the
HSE has offered the HPV vaccine to all girls in second level education in
Ireland since 2010 in order to prevent the development of cervical cancer in
adulthood .I personally believe that it was a great initiative by the
authorities to offer this as I myself have received the HPV vaccine in
secondary school .

On top
of that HIV has been an infection that we as a society are battling against
since the 1980 s and are still fighting against it . The human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV) infects cells of the immune system, destroying or impairing their
function. Infection with the virus results in progressive deterioration of the
immune system according to WHO , it has caused 
35 million deaths (WHO). It is estimated that 36.7 million people where
living with HIV in 2016 ( WHO ) and that 20.9 million people where receiving antiretroviral
therapy in 2016 ( WHO).I believe that the government of South Africa and the
united nations have implemented a policy in South Africa in 2016  that offered HIV treatment to all individuals
affected by this virus, which already had the worlds largest HIV treatment
programme  in order to end the AIDS
epidemic by 2030 which is an example of re-orientating health services and
strengthening community action as support is provided for all  .

The
united nations have implemented a 90 90 90 strategy  just like it is outlined in the Ottawa charter
to set goals and objectives , to battle HIV by letting people know their HIV
status , that all people diagnosed with HIV will receive an antiretroviral
therapy and finally that people receiving the therapy will have a viral suppression
.

Finally
I would like to discuss sexual risk taking in adolescence and substance use as
I believe that this may have an adverse affect on one’s health .Adolescences is
a normal period of an individual’s life where sexual development and
exploration begin however if you combine substance use and risky  sexual behaviour it can lead to many
complications. A study carried out in the United states identified that
substances such as alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine , methamphetamine
and addictive substances generally, including cigarettes are linked with early
sexual intercourse ( act for youth ).Therefore the Irish government has set out
a policy that states that the legal age of consent for sex is the age of 17
regardless of the fact if you are or are not under intoxication and I believe
that this policy is effective as it protects the minor from exposure to
sexually transmitted infections .

In
conclusion education , prevention and the services offered both nationally and
internationally I believe should minimise the mortality and morbidity
associated with sexual risk taking similarly I believe that government policies
are effective in minimising the mortality and morbidity associated with sexual
risk taking and we can see this in action in Ireland and South Africa  .

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