Serial killers were very rare during the Victorian Era, but they were typically very violent when they did show up. They affected their society as a whole and sometimes altered the everyday lives of people around them. These people made it dangerous to walk the streets at night, especially if their identity was unknown. Some of the trends in serial killers during this era are still popular in modern serial killers. Jack the Ripper, one of the most infamous serial killers, was one of the first of his kind, and people still are investigating his case today. Year after year, more and more people take interest in his case and come up with their own conclusions. However, there is no definite conclusion and perhaps there never will be. On the night of the 31st of August, in the year 1888, Mary Nichols was lying on the ground near a stable inside of the Whitechapel district in London, when a man found her with a slashed throat and a long wound on her abdomen. The Metropolitan Police were summoned and quickly removed her from the scene, as she was later declared dead by the director of the morgue. After the entire incident, the police realized that it was the work of a vile murderer. Little did they know, however, that it would not be the last time he struck. He murdered at least four more people over the course of 5 weeks, and came to be known as ‘Jack the Ripper’, among other names (source 2) . This murderer embodied everything that the human population wanted to get rid of: greed, hatred, anger, and discrimination. He had a unorthodox way of maiming his victims, as he used more mutilations to make the victim suffer. However, most mutilations were done post-mortem, or after the victim died. The Ripper had an infamous M.O. that made it easy for the police to determine whether it was one of his victims. Typically, he would strangle them first until they were dead or unconscious, then cut their throats, and lastly, utilize various mutilations. In result of the mutilations, some officers in the investigation believed that it was a crime of passion. In addition, there was no forensic evidence of rape, but there were no DNA tests during that time period, which further suggests it was a crime of passion (source 4). His five victims were all prostitutes, including Mary Nichols, who was mentioned earlier. The names of the five canonical victims were, in order of death date, Mary Nichols, Annie Chapman, Catherine Eddowes, Elizabeth Stride, and Mary Kelly. His second victim, Annie Chapman, was found dead on September 8, 1888 (source 3). She was found at six o’clock in the morning, with multiple mutilations. Some of these included the deep incision on her throat, a severed stomach, and the body was also missing the uterus, ovaries, the upper portion of the vagina, and two-thirds of the bladder. His third and fourth victim, Elizabeth Stride and Catherine Eddowes were murdered and found dead on the same day; a double murder. Stride was found around 1am, with a severed carotid artery, but no abdominal mutations unlike previous victims. Eddowes was found around 1:45 am with a severed throat and abdomen. In addition, the left kidney and the uterus were removed. His (apparent) last victim, Mary Kelly, was one of the most gruesome victims, because of the numerous mutilations the Ripper had utilized on her body. She was found in the morning by a police officer, when a doctor was brought to analyze the victim. Some mutilations included a slashed throat, breasts that appeared to be cut off, long cuts running down her arms, and the entire body was nearly skinned to the bone. In addition, her uterus, kidney, and one breast were found under her head, her intestines and spleen were found outside of the body, and her entire heart was missing; which only means that the murderer must have taken it as a memento (source 2). When the Metropolitan Police decided to begin an investigation, they found that there were many viable suspects that were important to the case. There are various suspects in this case that could be well considered for the infamous name ‘Jack the Ripper’. There were over 30 suspects that were considered in the case, some of which were less considered than others. There was a list of the main suspects, to suspects who were less likely to be the murderer. Main suspects, which were narrowed down to three people, at best. The other 28 suspects were not evaluated as much as those main three. These people included the infamous James Maybrick, Francis Tumblety, and Aaron Kosminski (source 3). Each suspect has specific reasons why they were considered to be the murderer. For example, James Maybrick was a main suspect in this case. He was the suspect at the very top of the list, solely because he had a written confession in his diary, which was not found until late in the year 1995 (source 1). In the Michael Barrett’s Confessions section of the Casebook, it states that the diary wrote, “I Michael Barrett, make oath and state as follows… I was the author of the original diary of ‘Jack the Ripper’ and my wife, Anne Barrett, hand wrote it from typed notes and on occasions at my dictation, the details of which I will explain in due course.” However, since this was not discovered until much longer after the case was closed, it was dismissed as irrational evidence. Nowadays, myriad people consider James Maybrick to be the face of the name ‘Jack the Ripper’. Nevertheless, the other four main suspects are also extensively investigated. Francis Tumblety, in fact, had a supposed extreme hatred of women and prostitutes, which would fit the description of the killer. Tumblety was in London at the time and was known by many people, which, therefore, could have given him a more vast knowledge in the East End environment (source 3). Following his fleet of London, no more murders were committed, if one only counts the canonical victims. Having said that, Tumblety was also a homosexual, which some believe would rule him out as a suspect, as he would be concerned singularly with male victims and would be uninterested in female prostitutes (source 5). Lastly, Aaron Kosminski, who was of the three prime suspects, is always mentioned in the discussion of Jack the Ripper’s case. Although Kosminski was never charged with the murders, he was known to have been insane, and modern evidence has brought us closer to solving the case after all. In 2014, an author and amateur detective named Russell Edwards made a claim that he found the identity of Jack the Ripper after all. After analyzing the DNA results on a shawl belonging to Catherine Eddowes, one of the victims, Edwards asserts they point to Kosminski. Although the reports have yet to be verified, Kosminski was a prime suspect in the case and can be easily named the perpetrator of the grim murders. Other less significant suspects such as Doctor Cream and Jill the Ripper have less evidence supporting their case, but can still be reviewed as suspects, despite the lack of verification (source 1). During this investigation, the Metropolitan Police provided little to no help, as they were a new organization. Many common folk dismissed them as insignificant because of their lack of arrangement. In fact, numerous officers were fired, owing to the fact that they were intoxicated on the job, which is a crime in and of itself (source 4). The Metropolitan Police did receive letters from Jack the Ripper. Some believed that these letters were illegitimate, and that they were written by ‘fans’ of Jack the Ripper. Inside some of these letters, the killer claimed to have describe his future kills and include gruesome mementos of his previous murders. Despite all of the evidence the Ripper gave the Metropolitan Police, their lack of interest caused the investigation to flunk (source 3). Hence their lack of an investigation, more modern investigations have come to light. However, because these investigations are unofficial, much of the evidence is brushed off. As mentioned earlier, author Russell Edwards conducted a DNA test that he claimed proved that Aaron Kosminski was guilty of the murders. However, these reports have yet to be verified and still are not considered legitimate. Furthermore, Trevor Marriott, a British detective, has been long known for investigating the Jack the Ripper murders. After he publicly asked for documents surrounding the case, he was denied access to these uncensored documents by the Metropolitan Police. This caused some speculation in the conspiracy theorist’s minds, as they believed the police were doing something that they didn’t want the public to know. Accordingly, the public still does not know the true killer of the innocent victims (source 1).Thus, one can conclude that Jack the Ripper was an abominable man that depicted greed, envy, and the manifestation of hatred. He was the first serial killer in a major city, and appeared in a time of political turmoil. This made it easy for him to hide in plain sight – especially his victims, as they were mutilated and left in plain sight. Fortunately, they were found in the middle of the night, and their bodies were not seen by the public. As is known, Jack the Ripper was never caught, and his entire case still remains a mystery, but, perhaps, one day, we will all know the truth.