Seminar will be discussing how marketers are using

Seminar
Topic:Discuss how
marketers might harness theories of motivation to gain brand engagement online
for their brand. Use examples from recent marketing campaigns. MOTIVATION                    IntroductionMotivation
fuels the behaviour and it consist of the concentration of kinetic energy in
the body and its direction. Motivation helps the human beings to desire for
something better and work towards doing something positively to achieve the
desired state. If we observe the behaviour of a kid, one can see that the
mother asks the reluctant kid to do some activity by promising him a chocolate
or something, which the child is fond of. The motivation to get the chocolate
helps the child to perform the activity that was not very interesting to him.  According to a recent article in the famous
online journal Quartz, the author says that the kids who have higher
motivations will be much successful than the ones with higher Intelligent
Quotient. (Quartz. 2018). This shows the impact of motivation on the lives of people
around. Marketers started using this aspect of psychology for the benefits of
companies since a long time in various forms, especially using advertisements.
The seminar paper will be discussing how marketers are using the various
theories of motivation, to create online brand engagement with their customers,
using relevant examples from the recent past.Literature Definition of
Motivation Motivation
is defined as “those psychological processes that cause the arousal, direction
and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directed” (Michel 1982,
P.81)To
achieve a specific behaviour the behaviour control system must direct and
concentrate the kinetic energy in the areas of the body that will execute the
needed actions.The Motivation
Process·      
The
process that lead the people to do their voluntary actions to achieve their
goals.·      
This
happens when a requirement or need comes up that the customer wants to satisfy.The
needs can be classified into the two as given below, in a broad manner. Utilitarian NeedThis
kind of need result in giving a practical or functional benefit.Example:
Motivation to drink water, this gives a functional or practical benefit of
quenching the thirst.Hedonic NeedThis
kind of need, which is an experiential need involving emotional responses or
fantasies.Hedonic
motivation is that something usually behind the push to purchase luxury goods. For
example, buying a Ferrari car to appear sporty, rich and trendy.Hedonic
science can prompt marketers to shift from “those aspects of life that can be
traded in market place” to desirable goods such as love, mental well being and
stress reduction. (Russel Sage Foundation, 2000)Goal The
end state, which is desired by customer to be in is the goal in this context. In
the case of the Hedonic Need example above, the customer wants to be seen by
others as a sporty person who is rich, respected and distinguished from the
crowd.Motivational Strength
The
motivational strength is an important part of the motivational theory and it
this characterises the power of inner urge to be in the desired state or to be
able to achieve the goal. As the motivational strength increases the customer’s
desire becomes stronger.  Repeated
advertisements in right periodicity can improve the motivational strength.Drive The
intensity of arousal in the customer due to difference between the present
state and desired state or achievement of the goal. Drive is an important
aspect of motivation. The marketers try to improve the drive using different
tactics to increase its intensity to speed up the customer’s journey to the
desired state or goal. Want This
is a manifestation of need shaped by the factors of cultural and personal traits.
Want is something that you desire or would like to have. For example, A costly
car, a summer vacation farm house or a caravan. These are the stuffs that you
can live without. Need This
is something that you require in your daily life. This cannot be avoided, and
it is not a luxury in your context of life. For example, a roof over your head,
a woollen clothing in winter, hygiene products such as soap, paste and brush
etc.  (The Balance. 2018.)Motivation
has strength and direction. The strength is the pressure that motivation exerts
on the consumer and direction is the way that customer take to reduce the
tension arises from motivation.Biological needs and
Learned needsThe
needs which are natural to consumers such as thirst and need for water is a
biological one but a need for a cup of coffee in the evening is a learned one.Biogenic Needs and
Psychogenic Needs

Biogenic
Needs

Psychogenic
Needs

 
Ø  Food
Ø  Water
Ø  Air
Ø  Shelter
Ø  Sleep
Ø  Sex

Ø  Dominance
Ø  Superiority
Ø  Emotional Stability
Ø  Achievement
Ø  Compliance
Ø  Order
Ø  Affiliation
Ø  Dependence
Ø  Endurance
Ø  Exhibition
Ø  Assistance
Ø  Change
Ø  Play

 The Major Theories of
MotivationConsumer
motivations are the energising forces that activate or trigger behaviour and
provide purpose, direction and drive to that behaviour. In terms of specific
product purchases, consumer behaviour very much dependant up on the situation
at hand. It is critical to learn what motives and behaviours are influenced by specific
circumstances in which consumers engage in goal-directed behaviour.  (Quester, Neil, Pettigrew, Grimmer, Davis
& Hawkins 2009, p. 324)1.     Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory2.    
McGuire’s
Psychological Motives1.    
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory Though there are many theories
related to motivation, this is one of the most talked about and basics among
the motivational theories.  The five stages in the hierarchy
are given below.1.    
Physiological
Needs2.    
Safety
& Security3.    
Love
& belonging4.    
Self-Esteem5.    
Self-Actualization.Physiological
needs These are the basic needs such as
food, shelter, clothes, etc. for a human being. This takes the priority among
all needs and this is the base for the Maslow’s need hierarchy theory. Anyone
in the society will require this stage to be fulfilled.Example: Activating need Ads showing mineral water and a
person quenching thirst can be used to satisfy the physiological need, which is
basic. It shows water as basic requirement to survive.(Ad Strategy, 2018) Americans were convinced to pay for
their drinking water needs by the French sparkling water company- Perrier. It created massive market for American
beverages industry.(Priceonomics, 2018) Example:
Customer Engagement:Perrier the beverages company, engaged
the Ad agency Oglivy and Mather to have online ads in YouTube to engage their
customers of the modern era.’Perrier- Go for the
extraordinaire’ ad is watched in the YouTube by more than 1.9 million
viewers. (YouTube, 2018) Safety
& Security needsThis is the next level of needs.
One looks up to this level of needs once the basic needs are met. One looks for
socially, emotionally and physically secure once basics are met. There is not
much scope of ‘activating problem recognition’ here on the above two areas by
marketers as these are basic needs for survival.  Love
& Belonging NeedsThis is the 3rd level in
the Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory. Love, friendship and social belongingness
comes in this area of needs.  This is
about affiliating to a group, it can be to family, friend circle, colleagues at
work place or to a community. Example
of online
engagement by ‘SALVATION ARMY’ –Salvation Army, launched ‘Whole
world Mobilizing ‘campaign and released. The content of the ad was “WE CARE”.
Salvation Army creates a sense of belongingness and care for the community etc
through their touching ads.  Self Esteem NeedsThis
is the fourth level in Maslow’s theory and this is focused on individual’s psychological
aspect of being valued, respected and distinguished among the community and
society.   Example:
Luxury brands such as Louis Vuitton, Maserati, Ferrari, Gucci, Cartier, Chanel,
Rolex etc uses online channels and social media to connect with their customers
and push ads that create a self-esteem needs in customers or target audience.These
brands use Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube etc to increase their brand
engagement with customers, show casing their brands with esteem, distinction,
class, elegance and luxury.The
YouTube ad by Cartier named ‘L’Odyssée
de Cartier’ – This ad showcases the luxurious legacy of Cartier from 1857
as a luxurious Jeweller. Statistics of the
Cartier Ad- L’Odyssée de Cartier’The
viewership of the Ad is more than 19 million. 38,000
likes and thousands of comments. The
esteem need of the customers are exploited by brands and marketers and they use
online engagements through social media, websites and online forums to connect
to the customers and reinforce the ‘exclusivity’.Self-Actualization
Needs This
also connected to status in Asia and in the Wester world it is about reaching the
zenith of one’s ability and desire. Example
:The US Marine Cops uses the self-actualization needs of
an individual to attract the youth to join the Marine Cops and the spirit of patriotism
coupled with self-actualization can be seen in their commercials.  (USA Patriotism. (2018)) Statistics:This
YouTube video of commercials by US Marine Cops, utilizing the Self-actualization
is viewed by 1.3 million people and it managed to garner hundreds of comments. The
ad inspires emotions with regards to national and patriotic feelings and it suggests
that joining the Marine Cop is something which one can do as an ultimate thing.                        ReferencesAd
Strategy. (2018). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. online Available
at: https://adstrategy.wordpress.com/2010/10/06/maslows-hierarchy-of-needs/
Accessed 16 Jan. 2018.Priceonomics.
(2018). The Ad Campaign that Convinced Americans to Pay for Water.
online Available at:
https://priceonomics.com/the-ad-campaign-that-convinced-americans-to-pay/
Accessed 16 Jan. 2018.Quartz. 2018. ‘Highly motivated kids have a greater
advantage in life than kids with a high IQ’ — Quartz. ONLINE Available
at: https://qz.com/1160024/highly-motivated-kids-have-a-greater-advantage-in-life-than-kids-with-a-high-iq/.
Accessed 16 January 2018.Quester,
Neil, Pettigrew, Grimmer, Davis & Hawkins 2009, Consumer Behaviour -Implications for Marketing strategy, McGraw-Hill,
Sydney. The Balance. 2018. Distinguishing Between Wants and
Needs. ONLINE Available at: https://www.thebalance.com/wants-vs-needs-1388544.
Accessed 16 January 2018.USA Patriotism!. (2018). US Marine Cops Commercials.
Online Video. 17 June 2012. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=inSzBLaTiNI&list=LL8dM6E-gCo5AkWYqFSkYC4A&index=1648.
Accessed: 15 January 2018.Well-Being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology (Russell
Sage Foundation, 2000)YouTube. (2018). Perrier – Go For The Extraordinaire.
online Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WcsfwNquoc0 Accessed 16
Jan. 2018.Zalenski, R. J., & Raspa, R. (2006). Maslow’s hierarchy
of needs: A framework for achieving human potential in hospice. Journal
of Palliative Medicine, 9(5), 1120-1127.        AppendicesThe Luxury Goods indulgences across the world ‘

Sources: Bain/ Altagamma; Bloomberg