Schizophrenia executive functioning (the capability to comprehend information,

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that affects how a person thinks,
feels, and behaves. People with schizophrenia will seem as if he or she is having
lost touch with reality. Although schizophrenia is not as common as other
mental disorders, the symptoms can be very disabling. People with schizophrenia
start experiencing symptoms
between the ages 16 and 30. However, there has been rare cases where children
were also diagnosed with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia has three different three
categories where the symptoms may fall into: positive, negative, and cognitive.

When a person experiences a positive symptom, it is usually that he or
she may be losing touch with some sort of aspect of reality. The positive symptoms
are hallucinations which is when a person is hearing voices, seeing things, he
or she would be able to smell things that others cannot. The hallucination is extremely
vivid for the person. The voice a person hears in the hallucination can be dangerous
or intimidating. The voices a person with schizophrenia may hear will sound
like someone he or she may know or may not know.

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People with schizophrenia also may experience delusions. These are false
beliefs that don’t change even when the person who holds them is presented with
new ideas or facts. The individuals who experience delusions may have problems
focusing, confused thinking, and may feel like their thoughts are blocked. When
a person experiences a negative symptom he or she has disruptions to normal
emotions and behaviors. Negative symptoms usually are flat affects, reduced
feelings of pleasure in everyday life, difficulty beginning and sustaining
activities, and reduced speaking.

People with cognitive symptoms are subtle but for people who have severe
cognitive symptoms, he or she may notice a change in their memory or other
aspects of thinking. A person with cognitive symptoms, have poor executive
functioning (the capability to comprehend information, to make useful
decisions.) Research suggest schizophrenia is due to, genetics. Schizophrenia is
not necessarily caused by only one particular genetic variation; scientist, believe
however, it is due to complex of genetics and environmental influences.

 Having a family with a history of
psychosis will increase the risk. Yet the possibility of using any kind of
genetic information to determine who will be able to develop schizophrenia. Even
though schizophrenia only occurs in 1% of the general population. Schizophrenia
occurs at 10% of people who have a first-degree relative with the disorder,
such as a parent or sibling. The highest risk occurs when an identical twin is
diagnosed with schizophrenia. The unaffected twin has a roughly 50% chance of
developing the disorder.

 Another cause of schizophrenia is
the environment. Bring exposed to certain viruses or malnutrition before birth,
especially in the first trimester and second trimesters has shown to maximize
the chances of having schizophrenia. Brain chemistry is also a cause. Brain
chemicals can be a problem, including neurotransmitters called dopamine and
glutamate, may contribute to schizophrenia. Substance abuse is another cause
for schizophrenia. Mind altering drugs play a role in increasing the risk of
schizophrenia especially during the adolescent years.

A growing body of evidence indicates that smoking marijuana increases
the risk of psychotic incidents and the risk of ongoing psychotic experiences.
The younger and more frequent the use, the greater the risk. Another study has
found that smoking marijuana led to earlier onset of schizophrenia and often
preceded the manifestation of the illness. Although, there is no cure for
schizophrenia, there still is help. Individual should contact his or her doctor
and explain the symptoms they are experiencing.

Some of the treatments can focus on reducing the symptoms of the mental
illness.                        Treatments include: Antipsychotics medications are taken
daily either in pill form or liquid form. However, there are some
antipsychotics which would be given through injection at least once or twice a
month. The medications may cause a side effect, but usually will go away after
the first few days. Doctors must work with the patient to figure out the best
medication and the correct dose.           
                                                                                                                                          Some of the drugs that are usually prescribed
for someone with schizophrenia are Aripiprazole
(Abilify), Asenapine (Saphris), Brexpiprazole (Rexulti), Cariprazine (Vraylar),
Clozapine (Clozaril) Iloperidone (Fanapt), Lurasidone (Latuda), Olanzapine
(Zyprexa), Paliperidone (Invega), Quetiapine (Seroquel), Risperidone
(Risperdal), Ziprasidone (Geodon). Medication works by
blocking receptors of neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopamine is believed to play a
huge part in psychotic symptom.                                                                                                                 
Another useful
treatment is Psychosocial Treatments.  Psychosocial treatments are extremely
useful after an individual and his or her physician find a medication that
works. Being able to learn and use coping skills to achieve challenges which
occur daily will help an individual with his or her life expectations and
goals, such as attending, completing school and/or work. People who are able to
partake in consistent psychosocial treatment reduce the chances of relapsing or
possibly being hospitalized.                                                                                                                 One
of the psychosocial treatments are called Psychotherapy
also known as talk therapy. Psychotherapy
benefits people by allowing him or her to learn about their current moods, feelings,
actions and how it will influence their lives. psychotherapy also offers ways
to assist in restructure thinking and how to respond to stress. Another
psychosocial therapy is Psychoeducation can teach an individual and his or her
family about the mental illness. Psychoeducation will educate the family and
friends of problem solving, coping strategies and how to deal with the signs of
relapsing. Psychoeducation can help with tensions within the home, which in
turn will help a person recover.           
                                                                                     Another treatment is coordinated specialty care (CSC) This particular model mixes certain psychosocial therapies,
medication, family involvement, and supported educational and employment
services, which will all be intended to reduce the symptoms and improve the
quality of life. Coordinated specialty care is restricted to people with
non-organic, non-affective psychotic disorders who in less then five years been
ill; empirical evidence concerning the usefulness of Coordinated Specialty Care
is best for people who meet these certain criteria. Coordinated Specialty Care
is more so for youth, adolescents, and young adults from ages 15 through 25,
although some programs are available for people up to the age of 30. Early
intervention programs are intended to bridge existing services for groups and remove
gaps between children, teenagers, and adult mental health programs. At its
core, Coordinated Specialty Care is a collaborative, recovery-oriented approach
which involves individuals, the people in the treatment team, and when its appropriate
family members, as active partakers.                                                             Coordinate Specialty Care enforces making decisions
when addressing the exclusive requirements, preferences, and recovery goals of
individuals. Collaborative treatment planning in Coordinate Specialty Care is a
respectful and effective way for creating an optimistic, confident therapeutic group
and keeping the engagement with people and his or her family members over time.
Coordinate Specialty Care services are also extremely organized with primary
medical care, and focusing on enhancing a individuals overall mental and
physical health.


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