Research protected and cannot be known c) Power

Research is usually done using human beings with feelings and experiences. Method of data in some studies also touched confidential, emotional, rights, personal things, and the truth of the subjects. Respondents have secret or confidential information, which cannot be known by others. When disclosed or announced will have a negative impact on certain parties, researchers need to know the ethics of research before planning and conducting research.

Ethics is derived from the Greek word meaning “ethos” which means the common sense that is commonly matched by systematic studies of the concept of ‘good’, ‘bad’, ‘right’ and ‘wrong’. Ethical issues are the dilemmas and conflicts that may arise on a ‘suitable’ method for conducting research. Ethics determine what can be done by a researcher and things cannot be done by the researchers.

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Based on ethics in research, a researcher must:

a)       Research Participant Protection

b)      Confidentiality of Research Participant Information

c)       Power Options for Engagement in Research / Issue Coercion

d)      Initial Explanation About Research / Informed Consent

e)      Avoiding Deceptive Practices


a)      Research Participant Protection

During research, participating participants should be protected against any negative effects that may be either physically or mentally. Allow sufficient time for the respondent to answer questions and not ask questions that embarrass, or cause emotional turmoil unpleasant experiences. Hence, the researcher must fully inform the subject of any possible occurrence during the research.


b)      Confidentiality of Research Participant Information

Any participant’s information should be protected from the general public information unless the participants have given written consent that allows the researcher to disclose such information to the public. For example, in survey surveys, respondents’ names need not be stated. Researchers should never disclose information about the sample of the study until it can interfere with the safety or dignity of the respondents. Personal rights must be protected and cannot be known


c)       Power Options for Engagement in Research / Issue

Participant has the right to be involved in or not in research, without compulsion. Although elected, the participant is entitled to withdraw from involvement in the research at any time, with or without any reason.


d)      Initial Explanation About Research / Informed Consent

An initial explanation should be given to the participants about the research they will participate in so they can choose whether to engage or not in the research. One of the measures to ensure ethics in research is through the use of an informed consent form. The form must be read and signed by the participant or guardian/parent (if it involves a child).


e)      Avoiding deceptive practices

Researchers must clearly disclose the data and findings, explaining the procedure of the investigation and publishing status with honesty. Researchers absolutely cannot falsify data or attempt to deceive colleagues or involved agencies and the general public about them. It is unethical if a researcher only refers to and reports the literature that is in agreement with the problem and avoids any other study. For example, if a researcher enters financial aid for his study it is likely that it will exaggerate the importance of his research and wilfully does not refer to a study that does not support his request. (Gay & Diehl, 1992:96; Forcese & Richer, 1973:5)


Good research features include scientific and ethical perspectives. Issues become more pronounced in social research where the subject is a human who has feelings, intellect and is influenced by social and religious values. Research such as weapons is neutral but human beings determine whether it is used to advance society or destroy it.


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