Principles of CarePrinciples of care are the standards and qualities that are considered desirable by the care profession. These are vital as they help to meet a client’s personal needs and to ensure a positive holistic health and personal development. They provide the basic layout for all healthcare and for health and social care professionals. If a care worker malpractices, they may be struck of the professional register which ensures that they can no longer practice as a health or social care or early years worker. Principle 1 – Promoting and supporting an individual’s right to dignity, independence, health and safety.Dignity should be given as it is a basic right for all humans. Dignity in health and social care is the care that does not undermine and supports and encourages a person’s self respect. Independence can help outpatients gain stability and the ability to care for themselves. It is necessary so that the patients do not become reliant on the care they are provided with. In an early years setting, a teacher will have to provide a framework of learning so that a child can develop their skills and learn. Health and safety is essential to ensure the lives and health of clients and patients. It is a basic necessity that every health and social care and early years establishment must adhere to to an admirable quality. PsychiatristIt is a psychiatrist’s duty to promote a client’s dignity. Dignity is a basic human right and should be respected, protected and preserved. A psychiatrist can preserve a patient’s dignity in various ways. They can give them a safe space to speak their minds freely by shutting doors and ensuring that nobody will enter the room whilst they are in an appointment. A psychiatrist must also ensure that they do not speak down to a client or demean them in any way. If a patient is on a ward, they can provide curtains to implement privacy and speak quietly whilst they are there to avoid being overheard. A psychiatrist also has a duty to promote independence and give their patient the stability to care for themselves. To do this, a patient will be given some input into their care and the decision making with informed choices. This allows a patient to be involved in their own care and their lifestyle; such as diet and different medications they can be prescribed, for example, antidepressants, stimulants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, depressants and mood stabilisers. This way they have some control over their lives and become less vulnerable and dependant on others. A psychiatrist must also promote health and safety for all of their clients. This could range from informing them where emergency exits are and the evacuation plans in place to having doors that only open with key cards to ensure no unauthorised person enters the wards. If a psychiatrist had a patient that was dealing with depression, they may ensure that there is no potential objects in which they can self-harm or commit suicide with to preserve their life. They would also lock away and label any harmful substances and medications such as morphine to prevent any overdoses or a confusion of medications which can lead to health complications.MidwifeIt is a midwife’s duty to promote and preserve a patient’s dignity. When a woman is admitted into hospital, it is a midwife’s responsibility to ensure their privacy, by either pulling a curtain between the beds when they are in postnatal care, or by closing doors, especially in the delivery room. This preserves their dignity by allowing them their own space and not revealing themselves inappropriately.A midwife has the duty to promote independence for a patient and allow them to make decisions concerning their health. This encompasses allowing the woman to make informed choices that affect her health care, such as whether she wants to have a epidural or not, where she would like to deliver the baby (hospital, home etc.) and in what way she would like to deliver; naturally or as a waterbirth. The woman will be provided with knowledge and information for her to make these choices and allows her to have independence. A midwife must also promote health and safety for all of their patients. They do this by thoroughly knowing the emergency evacuation plans and by having restricted areas where only people with authorisation can enter, such as the neonatal unit, where premature infants are kept in incubators. These areas can be restricted with key card and code access points on the doors. The hospital will also have CCTV cameras where the whole hospital can be monitored. Every midwife will also be DBS checked to ensure they are fit to work amongst the newborns. ChildminderA childminder must protect and preserve a child’s dignity. They may do this by speaking to a child quietly and privately if they have an accident, rather than announcing it to everyone and embarrassing them and speaking calmly rather than patronisingly to preserve their dignity. This allows a child to become more confident and feel safe in their environment. A childminder must nurture a child’s independence and allow them the stability to care for themselves. To do this, they will allow the child to make decisions on their life, such as their diet and what activities they partake in. When a child achieves something without help they will be proud and feel accomplished in doing something for themselves. However, a childminder must also ensure that they are providing children with the right amount of support as well as letting them become independent. When a child is learning new skills such as; doing up buttons or tying shoelaces, they initially need support, but need to have the freedom to eventually complete the task by themselves. This ensures that they are no longer vulnerable or reliant on others to do simple tasks for them.Health and safety is vital, especially in childcare. A childminder may have installed CCTV and doors with card or code locks. This ensures that no unauthorised personnel enter the area where the children are staying. A childminder will also lock away harmful substances or put them out of reach, such as bleach and washing powder, especially if they care for younger children as they have a habit of putting everything in their mouths. They will also have a carefully devised evacuation and emergency plan. They will also have regular drills to ensure that everyone is aware of the process of which to go through in the event of an emergency. As well as this, the childminder themselves will go through thorough DBS checks to ensure they are safe to work with the children. They will also regularly check equipment such as climbing frames to ensure that it is not damaged or has the potential to cause injury through cracks or rust. This also includes checking electrics and common household appliances. They may also check the beds to ensure that no accidents can occur and may ever install bars on the side of beds so the children cannot fall out. Principle 2 – Protecting individuals from abuse.Being protected from abuse is a basic human right. No person deserves to be emotionally, physically, sexually or financially abused or neglected. The definition of abuse is “deliberate or intended harm to another person, or a way of treating them as to cause harm”. Abuse is a crucial concern in society and 80-90% of people that are abused are abused by a close friend or family member. It is the duty of care to be vigilant; report changes; follow procedures and reassure the victim.PsychiatristA psychiatrist will see many forms of abuse (physical, emotional, sexual and neglect) and the trauma that stems from the abuse, they will also be tasked with recognising signs of ongoing abuse in a person’s psyche and their mannerisms.Physical abuse can cause a person to become withdrawn or aggressive and have a severe change in their mannerisms. A psychiatrist should observe these changes and contact the proper authorities, such as a social worker or the police. If a person has been physically abused it is also likely that they will be fidgety and anxious. People refrain from reporting the crime as they worry about incriminating the abuser (as the abuser is commonly a close relative or friend) and fear of incriminating themselves to the abuser should nothing be done by the services. Emotional abuse is detectable. People who have been emotionally abused, humiliated or harassed will most likely be withdrawn and quiet in themselves. If a staff member is caught emotionally abusing a patient through emotional abuse forms like; verbal assault; threats and insult, it is their duty to report it to their DSL or the authorities. Neglect is especially apparent in children and older people, as they are more vulnerable. Neglect encompasses the deprivation of food, warmth, comfort or medical assistance. A psychiatrist may identify neglect through a patients smell, stature (such as if they are extremely thin, they may be malnourished) and demeanor. If a psychiatrist is entrusted with the information that a client is being neglected or believes them to be, they must bring it up with their superiors, the safeguarding team and in severe cases; the police and social services.MidwifeA midwife must be vigilant to any issues that may arise surrounding abuse. They most commonly see sexual and domestic abuse. If a woman was extremely evasive to details of the father of the child and seemed uncomfortable when talking about him, it may signify to a midwife that the woman had been sexually abused and raped or is being physically abused. A midwife must immediately take this concern to their designated safeguarding leader (DSL) and when investigated further and new evidence is found, to the police.Physical abuse can also be identified by a midwife. If a midwife is giving a scan and sees unusual bruises on a woman such as fingerprints, specifically in hidden places, there may be a physical abuse issue. In this event, a midwife must follow protocol and report her findings to the DSL and reassure the client. This protects the woman and her child from any further abuse that could affect their lives. In the same way, if a midwife sees a colleague handling people roughly when maneuvering them and causing them physical harm, they must inform their supervisors as the other midwife may be an abusive figure to the clients and patients. This ensures the clients health and wellbeing and allows them to live a life that is free from abuse.ChildminderA childminder must be adept at identifying and reporting different forms of abuse and be able to notice the signs and signals of abuse. Physical abuse and neglect have obvious signs whereas emotional and sexual abuse can be more discrete. If a child continuously comes into the care and has dirty clothes, the same clothes or clothes that are ill fitting for the weather (such as a t-shirt in winter) this may be a sign of neglect, as well as being extremely thin, joining the care hungry or having body odour. It could show that the parents or carers have little care or notice to what their child is doing and do not provide the basic necessities for their health. In this situation, a childminder would have to come into contact with social workers and the police to report a suspicion and have a follow up in which the family and close friends would be evaluated to identify a potential abuser. If a abuser is identified, the child may be taken into care if it is a parent or segregated from the abuser and taken to court. In the same way, if a child joins the daycare and has unusual bruises in strange places and flinches away from touch there may be a physical abuse issue. A childminder will alert the proper authorities, such as social workers or the police to deal with the problem. Abuse can also be identified through personality changes, the child may become; withdrawn; sullen; upset or aggressive and may even begin to produce explicit drawings such as a figure attacking them or another person. This should all be reported, drawings taken as evidence and bruises, cuts and injuries photographed as proof.Emotional abuse is also a problem in society. This could be harassing a person or humiliating them. If a childminder isolated a child from activities or used enforced social isolation, they would be an abuser. If a childminder sees this occurring with a colleague, they must report it to their designated safeguarding leader (DSL) to ensure the safety of the children. A childminder must also make a report if they believe a child is being abused at home such as being verbally assaulted or threatened. This can be seen through timid behaviour and fidgeting. A sexual abuse problem can be severe. This can be seen in various warning signs such as flinching away from touch and being unusually timid around a specific gender (usually the gender in which their abuser is). Sexual abuse encompasses everything from sexually explicit photography to rape. If a childminder believes that a child is being sexually abused they must contact the police immediately to ensure that the child is safe in their environment.Principle 3 – Maintaining confidentiality of information.Confidentiality is a construct that is based on trust and loyalty and is a basic human right. Breaking confidentiality is known as a breach of confidence and this can include showing records to anyone unauthorised to see them, or outside of the workplace. However, despite this, if the person who is keeping the confidentiality believes that person or someone else to beat risk, it is their duty to share it with an appropriate source. Confidentiality is legally upheld by various laws, such as; The Data Protection Act of 1988, The Freedom of Information Act of 2000, and more recently, The European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which comes into enforcement on the 25th of May 2018.PsychiatristMidwifeChildminderPrinciple 4 – Promote individualised care.Every person is an individual and has different needs that need to be catered for. Health and Social Care workers, as well as early years teachers, need to be able to access a particular person’s dire needs and identify their requirements.