Prevalence problems, hyperactivity-inattention, peer relationship problems and pro-social

Prevalence research studies in
psychopathology have indicated that most of the people who suffered from
psychological impairment either refused to seek for relevant services or know
nothing about the mental illness (Muris et al., 2003; Burns et al., 2004;
Janssens & Deboutte, 2009). The latest estimated statistic by World Health
Organization (2016) has stated around 35% to 50% of people across the
developing countries suffered in severe mental illness and more than 70% of
these people did not seek treatment. According to Neuhaus and Beauchaine (2017),
the model of developmental psychopathology explained children were important to
explore and develop new behaviours during pre-school stage, which can evaluated
whether the children have the mental issue potential if often acted (i.e. impulsive,
hyperactive, disinhibited) differently (as cited in Beauchaine & Hinshaw,
2017). Frick et al. (2013) argued some behaviour of children were triggered
mental health issue, so parents and guardian should be more concerned on the behaviour
of children. The environmental factors such as family environment and social
interaction widely used to explain the developmental psychopathology among
children and adolescents (Burt, 2009; Frick et al., 2013). A recent study examined
the correlation between psychopathology and quality of life (QoF) by using SDQ
and PedsQol conducted within Nigerian population, and showed negatively
significant between variables (Atilola et al., 2017). Hence, the developmental
process of children and adolescents should be concern as connected with the
living environment.  

According to Goodman (1997) and supported by
Koskelainen (2008), the questionnaires as a crucial tool often used for examine
the emotional and behavioural problems of children and early adolescences in
psychiatric research field. The scale not only enforced the ideas of
psychiatrics on psychopathology symptoms and treatments, but also helped to evaluate
the possibility of children involved in mental issues (Achenbach, 1998; Muris
et al., 2004). For the present study, the self-report version of Strengths and
Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQ) will be used, which was originally developed by
Goodman (1998) as a brief behavioural screening tool with 25-items to assess
the children and adolescence mental health was widely contributed to psychopathology.
There are five distinct dimensions: emotional symptoms, conduct problems,
hyperactivity-inattention, peer relationship problems and pro-social behaviour help
to distinguish whether, the person associated with psychiatric issues as well
as personal strengths which required further assessment or not (Goodman, 1997).
In order to investigate the standardization of scale can widely applied in the
particular population across nations, validity and reliability of SDQ has being
measured throughout research studies over years.

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To identify the construct validity of five-factors
SDQ, Roy et al. (2008) conducted a study to evaluate from a large community
sample in Norway, participants were categorized into three age groups: pre-, early
and late adolescents (N=26,269; age 10 to 19 years old).  The construct validity was identified through
two aspects: convergent and discriminant validity. Throughout the findings, traits
factor suggested self-report SDQ had more discrimination on peer relationship
and emotional symptoms subscales. Likewise, the pro-social behaviour subscale
characterised as unique dimension by emphasized the meaning behind the
behaviour problems’ dimension of scale (Roy et al., 2008). Moderate in
correlation among the factors of SDQ had been found and the result proved that
self-report SDQ can be widely extended within participants’ age range. As one
of the rare study (Roy et al., 2008) included late adolescents (i.e. age 16 to
19), the findings seems to support the study done by Goodman (2001). Goodman
(2001) also found the pro-social subscales showed positive construal factor
with the sample of 10,438 children between ages 5 to 15 years old. Additionally,
Muris et al. (2004) conducted to measure the psychometrics properties of SDQ
among the young children (N=1111, aged 8 to 13). Participants was selected from
regular primary school completed the self-report SDQ during classes. 439
children as the subsample then assigned by their teachers into group (i.e.
characterised with or without behaviour problems) to complete SDQ. The
distinction between his study and other studies was the comparison of SDQ with
several behaviour problems’ scales (i.e. teacher-report SDQ, Youth Self-Report,
Teacher Report Form) to examine the convergent validity. The findings supported
the convergent validity and SDQ was found to be correlated with YSR and TRF
theoretically (Muris et al., 2004). This study also proved that SDQ as a good
tool to distinguish the between children with or without behaviour issues. However,

Besides, the internal consistency reliability
has been measured in relevant studies to identify the potential error and the consistency
across the psychometric properties of SDQ among the particular populations
across nations (Doi et al., 2014). The earlier study conducted by Muris et al.
(2004) was measured the SDQ among the pre-adolescence and early adolescence in
United Kingdom. The internal consistency was less satisfaction for 8 to 10
years old compared to the alpha coefficients within age 11 to 13. The selected
age range for the study was to examine whether the brevity of scale can be used
in pre-adolescence or not, although the self-report SDQ was intended to focus
on the children aged 11 and above (Goodman, 1997; Goodman, 2001). Thus, the study
showed sufficient in reliability of the (? ? .60), yet low coefficients on five
subscales (Muris et al., 2004). Nevertheless, a Russian research’s findings on
examining factor structure of self-report SDQ (N=2892, age 13 to 18) was
indicated differently (Ruchkin et al., 2007). The age range was selected based
on the initial intention of scale but the finding on internal consistency
showed lower than expected. Ruchkin et al. (2007) argued that their study did
not confirm the validation by using psychiatric diagnose was considered as the
limitation, whereas the studies (Muris et al., 2004; Ruchkin et al., 2007)
shared a similarity which the conduct problems subscale was low satisfactory to
be suggested improved in terms of factor structure.

Thus, the current research study aimed to
examine the reliability and validity of a self-report inventor version of
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQ) through the Nigerian


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