Part NICOLA CHAPMANWord Count: 2749HNC Social ServicesSOCIOLOGY AND

Part 1: Sociological Perspectives and The Role of the Family.Part 1:CARE AND CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY:H8MN34Part 2:HEALTH, WELLBEING, AND SAFEGUARDING:H8MM34COLLABORATIVE WORKING:H99434LECTURER: JASON MCMILLANSUBMITTED BY: NICOLA CHAPMANWord Count: 2749HNC Social ServicesSOCIOLOGY AND SOCIAL POLICYDuring part 1, I will explore socialization and the role of the family today by comparing contemporary and traditional ideas of family. I will include three sociological perspectives and what they highlight within family structures and roles. During Part 2, I will include two significant developments resulting from the welfare state, go onto show my research into the Scottish Governments response to child protection. I will then move onto early intervention, collaborative working, and two priority frameworks designed to tackle health inequalities. Part 1: Socialisation is a process that we all go through. Contributing factors to this are Primary and Secondary socialization. This occurs in young infancy years, where we begin to adapt and learn fundamentals of our family, norms, values, and culture we grow up in. When we break down our views of socialization we take on a perspective. (Browne, An Introduction to Sociology, 2011)Symbolic interactionism is a micro analysis that defines people in society who attach themselves to the meaning of symbols. Depending on, they will base their own actions accordingly. The concept of ‘self’ is built on perceptions we have or the feedback we receive. This is the sole basis of forming our identity and being ‘socialised’ into the culture of society allowing us to gain a part of the culture we belong too. Functionalism is a macro analysis viewing society and its principles around the same mechanism of the human body. The interconnected parts of society are a replica of the anatomy, physiology, histology, and embryology of the human body’s functions. (Parson, 2016) Just like in society we have our families, class, education and the government working together to maintain a stable, functioning society. Family “a group of people who are related by kinship ties: relations of blood, marriage/civil partnership or adoption.” (Browne, An Introduction to Sociology, 2011, p. 85) is a core functioning institution within society determined by personal experience and upbringing. The socialization within family underpins our social norms and values that we take through our milestones into adulthood. Our common conception of ‘family’ comes from the wider picture formed from media portrayal; this coincides with traditional ideas of family. The nuclear family is a heterosexual male, female and two biological children cohabiting together in their own home. This is defined within the ‘bisto’ ad, nationalizing the portrayal of a ‘housewife’ providing for her family’s needs while her husband is the ‘breadwinner’. Functionalists perceive traditional ideas of the family as a positive benefit to society. Stabilisation of a married couple contributes to their psychological well-being by providing mutual support consistently throughout the stresses of the economy and so on. This is a core principal shared within a family’s structure; a risk of this not functioning may be marriage breakdown, separation or divorce. Conflict theorists emphasize many problems stem from inequality. They look beyond perceptions to focus on the suppressed, darker side of a family; the violence/aggression that takes place behind closed doors between either partner and/or children. Agreeably patriarchy is a contributing risk factor to the structure of a family; traditionally husbands earn more money than their wives creating an inferiority between gender roles when women resist this notion; spousal conflict may occur causing a relationship breakdown. Symbolic Interactionists conclude family problems begin when couples perceive their marriage and expectations of family differently from each other. This places a strain on a family’s structure while the parents try to reconcile. Differences can be, the prospects of having less/more children, feeling a lack of motivation/ fulfillment and a breakdown with trust. Nowadays, the family is a diverse analysis; contemporary ideas of family are more common than ever before.  Compared with earlier times in Britain we are now more socialized to live within a modern society that bears witness to the rise of; same sex, a lone parent, and symmetrical families. Gay or lesbian families consist of two males, or two females, cohabiting together with children. Over the generations, the equal rights of same-sex couples have been empowered and influenced in legislative practice to promote their rights and thrive within society. Two similarities between contemporary and traditional ideas of family show us gay or lesbian families promote the health and well-being of their children the same way a traditional family would by providing a safe, stimulating and caring environment for their children; teaching them core values and norms that help form their identity; and allowing them a chance to thrive within education to become contributing adults within society. Furthermore, two parents cohabiting or married are there to nurture and protect their children throughout each milestone providing them with the best possible start in life. Two differences show that within a traditional family male and female couples are able to conceive their own biological children naturally or through surrogacy; whereas within a gay or lesbian family adoption or surrogacy promotes the couples right and chance to be parents. Furthermore, same-sex couples divide the workload equally to provide for their family, whereas the traditional gender roles of the family separate male and female to be less equal.(Cunningham, 2014) (Browne, An Introduction to Sociology, 2011) (Miller, 2015)Part 2: Sir William Beveridge provided a summary of key principles to rebuild society after World War 2 cited in The Beveridge Report (1942). He aimed to abolish poverty by addressing ‘The Five Giant Evils’ Want, Disease, Ignorance, Squalor, Idleness. This report subsequently formed the much-needed basis for social legislation and lead to the decision made by the Prime Minister Clement Attlee (1945) to introduce the Welfare State based on the findings of the report. To tackle ‘Disease’ Beveridge wanted a free health system for all. He proposed the fundamentals we now call the NHS. The National Health Service Act (1946) was formed to eradicate health inequalities, improvement of mental and physical health strategies using a prevention, diagnosis and treatment plan which would run effectively throughout the UK at no cost for those who use it. This legislation was formally introduced on 5 July 1948.To tackle ‘Ignorance’ Beveridge proposed free Secondary School Education for all. During 1938, 80% of children left school at the age of 14. Beveridge viewed poor education as the main functioning reason of poverty, as lack of life chances after school created the chain of struggle. The Education Act (1944) brought about free education for all, a rise of the leaving school age to 15, an introduction of separate schools; Nursery, Primary and Secondary and at the age of 11 an exam would determine if you either attended Upper or Lower Secondary School. Ultimately this exam determined whether you would go to university or into a trade, creating a class division and low/high life expectancy from the age of 11. The middle class benefited from this massively as previously they had to pay for education. Looking at the public issue of Child Protection I will refer to two pieces of legislation that promotes children having the best possible start in life; putting them in the center of what support and care they receive. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) underpins the moral obligation to promote, protect, and incorporate the rights of children and young people. The 54 articles are honored by forming a strong partnership between government and international organizations like UNICEF to promote child advocacy. The guiding principles of the UNCRC are: non-discriminatory for all children, a primary focus on the child’s best interest, a child’s right to life; through survival and development; and a child’s right to be listened/participate. (UNCRC, 2018)These principles have shaped the Scottish Governments response to Child Protection and aren’t taken lightly when implementing relevant legislation. The Children (Scotland) Act 1995 is based on the core principles of the UNCRC. Promotes Provision (Article 24), Protection (Article 19) Participation (Article 13). The three main themes of this Act are: The child’s needs are met in a court of law; the welfare of the child is the paramount priority and the views of the child are heard before major decisions are made. The Child and Young People (Scotland) Act 2014 was set out by Scottish Ministers to crucially determine the steps they can take to secure a better effect in Scotland, underpinned by the UNCRC. The promotion of public awareness, including appropriate understanding amongst all children on the rights of a child and young person was significantly highlighted. Ministers are to report on any steps taken within a three-year period, this includes a children’s services plan completed by the local authority and health board.  This aims to collaborate local authorities within the community to safeguard the wellbeing of all children. Integrating the views of those involved, utilizing the best resources available to offer support and where the appropriate immediate action is taken to prevent negative outcomes arising. Within Scotland, The NSPCC underpins The Scottish Government (2014) National Guidance for Child Protection in Scotland. They strive to ensure all children’s needs are met and no child should suffer in silence or alone. Child Protection Committees (CPCs) are accountable for the responsibility of the policies that surround protecting a child and young person by implementing the correct guidance within all relevant local authorities. This ensures the collaborative working between children’s social work, health services, and the police, keeping the interests and security of children the main priority. Getting It Right for Every Child (GIRFEC) (2007) sets Scotland’s national standard to combat Child Protection by ensuring children’s needs are met as early as possible and helps tackle health and wellbeing by improving outcomes. The main principle of GIRFEC means Child Protection can be achieved when the right help is given at the right time. The implementation of GIRFEC enables collaborative working by underpinning its principles within The Early Years Framework (EYF) (2008). The unity of inter-agency, third and independent sector contributes to delivering improved outcomes for all children; with prevention and early intervention strategies. This is one of ten key elements found in the EYF; another is breaking cycles of poverty, inequality and poor outcomes in and throughout the early years. EYF defines early ears from pre-birth to 8 years old. This highlights the importance of pregnancy in regards to influencing outcomes so that transitions are monitored at each stage, maximizing the support available. This ensures a child’s transition into primary school can be focused as it’s a critical period of their life. (Duckett, 2016) (Miller, 2015) (Burton, 2014) (Stafford, 2010)Without the role of early intervention when working with children, families would be challenged through dilemmas and fears of not being able to look after themselves or their children. The importance of every child’s needs being met as early as possible is a broad analysis. The fundamentals come from the unique pattern of relationships and environment each child is exposed to within a family, community, and culture. All of which have different outcomes for each family. Early intervention enables core reasoning to protect all children who need support to learn, develop well, be kept healthy and safe. Therefore, those involved can evaluate whether the child has experienced direct positive relationships, are able to determine if a child is; resilient, capable and confident; is part of an enabling environment; if milestones are being achieved accordingly. This intervention goes hand in hand with the EYF, GIRFEC, and UNCRC. If the needs of a child are not being met, go unnoticed or with no early intervention strategy in place; the child is subject to an inadequate chance at life; putting their own rights at risk, health and safety may also be in jeopardy and prevents equity later in life within education and opportunities. The Christie Report (2011) recommends and supports collaborative working due to its assessment of challenges faced by Scotland’s public sector. It highlights the need for an Integrated service to run a tighter ship, to strengthen efficiency within public services working towards preventing negative outcomes. The report found strict budget cuts influenced by the Independent Budget Review (2010) will have to make our services more sustainable over the long term. Combating the pressures of deeply rooted inequalities caused by failure to prioritize preventative measures; cause’s individuals and communities to remain in a deprived cycle. The report concluded moving forward would be improving transparency and challenging accountability to strengthen collaboration. A stronger focus on value for money, mobilizing a wider range of Scotland’s talents in response to needs of individuals and communities. This is a proactive way to build resilience against on-going inequalities. ‘The ‘Four Pillars’ of public service reform is the Scottish government’s reaction to the Christie Report: Prevention, Performance, People, and Partnership. This strategy is to ensure the collaborative working between organizational boundaries is person-centered. (Christie Report, 2011)Collaborative working joins the partnership of social services, health, police, and other local authorities to work effectively together; communicating vital information. The advantages of collaboration: When these services promote the well-being of the individual, it’s effective and delivers the interests aimed to improve their outcomes. The individual feels confident that their needs are being met as the participation from all strengthens the possibilities and choices they have. Tailoring an individual’s needs to the support they receive is crucial; the influence of positive collaboration enables everyone to be well informed and better organized when fulfilling person-centered care plans or constructing a proactive way forward. The disadvantages of collaboration: The practice within the inter-agency partnerships can sometimes let down the bigger picture. This occurs due to lack of time, resources and continuous budget cuts across all areas. These barriers prevent teams working effectively together; hinders the progress of common understanding, effects availability of relevant/up to date training, may create hostility and lack of respect for other professional roles. It is common for inter-agency meetings to fail due to the lack of experience or time is given to understand each other’s professional responsibilities.Two Priority Frameworks that aim to tackle health inequalities are Achieving Our Potential and Equally Well. Achieving Our Potential (2008) focuses on poverty and financial inequality in Scotland. This aims to focus on those in the society that is disconnected from the economy and provide opportunities.  Those that are at a disadvantage in society can be people from minority ethnic backgrounds, those with carer responsibilities and the disabled. Those who are directly affected may have a lower education, creating substantial differences in life chances to those who have a higher education. This then creates a cycle of lower paid jobs, increases poorer health behaviors and a possibility of social isolation. Two preventative health measures from this framework are: 1) Linking the principles of EYF to go hand in hand tackling poverty and financial inequality. We have learned that the best possible start in life can positively influence a good education and promote good health, encouraging progression into work or further education; tackling the causes rather than managing the failures later on. 2) The Road to Recovery is an approach that aims to tackle Scotland’s drug problem by making sure those affected are enabled to move-on from their drug use, towards a drug-free life and become an active and contributing member of society. ‘Getting it Right for Children in Substance Misusing Families’ is a programme that encourages more effective responses to children at risk of parental substance misuse. This places the child at the center of agency responses, also embedding the principle of early intervention. Equally Well (2008) outlines the importance of early intervention as a key approach to reduce health inequalities in the long term but stresses its generational approach. The aims argue that health inequalities aren’t improving fast enough in the poorest areas. Key points found those living in poverty have a lower life expectancy and higher rates of disease, including mental health. The Scottish Government’s priority action is to increase life expectancy by focusing on *children in early years, *major causes of death such as heart disease, *mental health and *negative outcomes caused by drugs, alcohol, and violence. Two preventative health measures from this framework are: 1) NHS Boards aim to improve the availability of antenatal services in order to reach those of a higher risk more efficiently during key stages of pregnancy. Having these services available allows health professionals the opportunity to intervene accordingly with specific knowledge of potential risks and what support is available throughout the pregnancy to reduce negative outcomes. 2) Improving life expectancy by community planning partnerships utilizing resources from the Fairer Scotland Fund. Interacting with communities and sharing innovative ideas with individuals using the services working towards what they feel will work to help. This enables the increased presence of initiatives that engage with young people who have started on the cycle of offending and offer more effective services for alcohol and drug misuse. (The Road To Recovery, 2008) (Achieving Out Potential, 2008) (Equally Well Report, 2008) (Equally Well, 2008) (Fairer Scotland fund, 2010)Works CitedBrowne, K. (2011). An Introduction to Sociology. Cambridge: Polity Press.Burton, J. R. (2014). Safeguarding and Protecting Children in the Early Years. Oxon: Routledge.Child Care Legislation. (2007). Retrieved January 13, 2018, from https://www.slideshare.net/earlyeducation/hnc-childcare-overview-of-legislation-163885Cunningham, J. C. (2014). Sociology & Social Work. London: SAGE.Duckett, L. D. (2016). Proactive Child Protection and Social Work. London: SAGE.Miller, J. (2015). Care in Practice. Paisley: Hodder Gibson.Parson, T. (2016). Retrieved January 14, 2018, from https://revisesociology.com/2016/09/01/functionalism-sociology/Bibliography(2018, January 18). Retrieved from NSPCC: https://www.nspcc.org.uk/preventing-abuse/child-protection-system/scotland/legislation-policy-guidance/Achieving Our Potential. (2008). Retrieved January 17, 2018, from http://www.gov.scot/Resource/Doc/246055/0069426.pdfBrowne, K. (2011). In An Introduction to Sociology (p. 85). Cambridge: Polity Press.Browne, K. (2011). An Introduction to Sociology. Cambridge: Polity Press.Burton, J. R. (2014). Safeguarding and Protecting Children in the Early Years. Oxon: Routledge.Child Care Legislation. (2007). Retrieved January 13, 2018, from https://www.slideshare.net/earlyeducation/hnc-childcare-overview-of-legislation-163885Christie Report. (2011). Retrieved January 15, 2018, from http://www.gov.scot/Resource/Doc/352649/0118638.pdfCunningham, J. C. (2014). Sociology & Social Work. London: SAGE.Duckett, L. D. (2016). Proactive Child Protection and Social Work. London: SAGE.Equally Well. (2008). Retrieved January 17, 2018, from http://www.healthscotland.com/uploads/documents/8949-Early%20years%20%20young%20people%20%20Equally%20Well%20Outcomes%20Framework.pdfEqually Well Report. (2008). Retrieved January 17, 2018, from http://www.gov.scot/Resource/Doc/226607/0061266.pdfFairer Scotland fund. (2010). Retrieved January 18, 2018, from http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Built-Environment/regeneration/fairer-scotland-fundMiller, J. (2015). Care in Practice. Paisley: Hodder Gibson.Parson, T. (2016). Retrieved January 14, 2018, from https://revisesociology.com/2016/09/01/functionalism-sociology/Promoting Family Welfare Child Scotland Act. (2006). Retrieved January 13, 2018, from http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2004/10/20066/44709Regulations Child Scotland Act. (2006). Retrieved January 13, 2018, from http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2004/10/20066/44708Stafford, V. a. (2010). Child Protection Reform Across the UK. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press Ltd.The Road To Recovery. (2008). Retrieved January 17, 2018, from http://www.gov.scot/Resource/Doc/224480/0060586.pdfUNCRC. (2018, January 18). Retrieved from https://www.cypcs.org.uk/rights/uncrcarticlesWelfare state. (2014). Retrieved January 14, 2018, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/intermediate2/history/cradle_to_the_grave/welfare_state/revision/8/William Beveridge. (2014). Retrieved January 15, 2018, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/beveridge_william.shtml

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