p.p1 talks about how HIV gained popularity and

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OUTLINE

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INTRODUCTION

a). It gives an overview or a summarized history concerning the origin of HIV, the causes and reason behind its prevalence across the world. It also talks about how HIV gained popularity and how people got to know about its existence and also the notion and mentality that people believed about the Virus.
2. MIDDLE/BODY
a). Gives a definition of what HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus) stands for and provides the basic knowledge of the elements about AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). 
b). Gives a summary of the effects of HIV in the body. It also gives an overview of what happens to the body cell when one is infected by the virus and the development stages of HIV.
c). It describes the various causes and modes of transmission from an infected person to a healthy person, stating some of the very common cause of HIV in the society today.
d). Describe some of the various symptoms that are associated with HIV in different stage of HIV development, and their effects to the human body.
e). Provides information concerning ways in which HV can be treated even though there is no definite cure for the virus. It also gives information on ART treatment that is normally used in treating people infected with HIV and how the treatment helps to suppress the virus in the body helping the victim to live longer and in healthy conditions
3. CONCLUSION 
a). It gives an overview of ongoing scientific innovations in attempts to find a cure for HIV and  recommendations in regards on how to prevent one from getting infecting with HIV.

Introduction
HIV is one of the world most dangerous virus known to humans and has been around for a quite a long time, although there have been no facts about the origin of the disease. However, there have been many medical theories and speculations as to where the disease might have originated (Stolley & Glass, 2009). The most predominant supposition suggests that the first viral attack on humans was in central Africa over 100 years ago. The virus then spread fast and increased when people from different parts of the world began migrating or traveling. HIV first hit the international headlines in the early 1980s in the United States. 
The media first displayed the virus as unknown disease and was directly linked those individuals who practiced homosexual activities only (Stolley & Glass, 2009). In this study, we shall focus on the causes and effects and symptoms of HIV on an individual and the society at large and also ways in which HIV can be prevented. HIV remains a significant problem for some reasons. HIV has an extremely high mutation rate in that an infected person often harbors several variations. This extreme mutation rate allows the virus to quickly develop resistance to the various drugs that are used to treat it (Adler, 2012).

Definition 
HIV is an acronym that stands for Human immunodeficiency virus and is a retrovirus that causes AIDS, which stands for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. HIV consists of two strain of the virus, HIV-1, and HIV-2 (Whiteside, 2017). HIV and AIDs is a human disease which causes the plodding body failure of the immune or body defense system thus leading fatal and severe opportunistic illnesses. Irrespective of much technological advancement on medicine scientist have not yet found a cure for this virus. People who are infected with HIV, however, can remain latent in the body for some years. During the medium incubation phase, for adults, it would take ten years or more to develop AIDS and thus many people with HIV may be unaware of their infection condition and still look healthy (Delhi, 2008). 
 Effects of HIV
The definite period of HIV to take effect into the body varies from one person to another. In most circumstances, it may take 1-2 years for the severe phases of HIV to take effect. Typically at this point, the victim’s life is known to have progressed or transformed into AIDS. This health status becomes fully established when one or more diseases start to accumulate in the persons of the victim’s body. Formerly when the HIV enters the body, it infects the ‘T’ cells that are known to protect the immune system (Volberding, 2008). Once the Virus attaches itself to the T cell, the virus sheds its exterior coating and then discharges the Viral RNA substance. DNA and RNA are typically genetic blueprints for the body. When the Viral RNA gains entry to the T cell it transforms into a more complex Viral DNA. The formation of this complex DNA is caused by the enzymes that the HIV brings along (Stolley & Glass, 2009). After the complete transformation of Viral RNA to Viral DNA, the HIV then attacks the nucleus of the T cell, where it links with the DNA cell and awaits the chance to produce more Viral RNA. When a person gets infected or succumbs to stress, the Cell breaks and develops into a viral protein and which then starts to produce more viral RNA. This process then repeats itself in other T cells, massively producing the virus all through the immune system (Swanson, & Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2010).
When the HIV develops into retrovirus stage, it reproduces with the help of enzymes that it carries with it. It then allows the HIV to change the genetic RNA into DNA in the host cells. Fundamentally, every time the virus attacks a cell it alters it from Viral RNA to Viral DNA type. Due to the complexity of the HIV strand consisting of numerous genetic codes, it has made it impossible for the modern biological and chemical innovations to break it down. One of the essential components that make the HIV more lethal is that it directly attacks the critical defense cells of the immune system exposing it to other external attacks (Delhi, 2008). There is no evidence whatsoever of the definite way or technique of how HIV really destroys the white blood cells known as the CD4 cells that are known to play a significant role in the body immune system. However, the only known explanation is that the HIV directly destroys the white blood cells by either causing them disintegrate or clump together (Poindexter, 2013). The latest theory that is associated with this biological phenomenon is that the HIV inculcates a genetic program inside the white blood cells that cause thousands of cells to die prematurely. In the body, all cells are programmed to die and reproduce, thus aiding the renewal of cells in the body. This process is known as Apoptosis. It is believed that the HIV accelerates the rate of this process without renewing the cells. Due to the virus ability to cloak itself in the victim’s body, HIV then can move all through the body almost unnoticed destroying all the cells along the way (Volberding, 2008).

Mode of Transmission
Several theoretical and evidenced-based HIV transmission methods have been documented over the years. Some of the means through which HIV can be transmitted include;
Sexual Intercourse
  Sexual transmission of the HIV is the most frequent or standard mode of transmission in the society today. When a person who has the HIV comes in contact with a person without the virus sexually, he or she can acquire the HIV (Volberding, 2008). Transmission occurs through the exchange of body fluids such as vaginal secretions, rectal mucus, and semen with the infected person. Sexual transmission of HIV occurs mostly through unprotected sex.
Blood or Blood products
 This mode of transmission is frequent in intravenous hemophiliacs, drug users and people who receive the blood transfusion and deal with blood products. Doctors and other health workers like nurses may accidentally get exposed to the virus in their work, people who pierce their skins and those who do tattooing are often at a higher risk of getting infected with the HIV. The spread of the HIV through exposure to contaminates of infected blood results from sharing items like needles for those people who use illegal drugs (Adler, 2012). The same case applies to those people who share needles and other sharp objects on their bodies together.
Pregnant Mothers to Their Unborn Babies
HIV can be transmitted through from mother to child during the time of pregnancy, breastfeeding or during childbirth. This risk of HIV transmission in this scenario, however, becomes high in the absence of treatment.
There are other misconceptions in regards to the transmission of the HIV. There are several facts about HIV that people should know about to avoid being misinformed (Adler, 2012). HIV does not survive outside the body for a long time and cannot be transmitted through daily activities, for example, sharing utensils drinking from the same glass of water shaking hand or even kissing. The HIV also cannot be transmitted through insect or animal bites. The virus, however, can be transmitted by infected persons who are already prescribed for the antiretroviral therapy through needle sharing and unprotected sex (Swanson, & Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2010).
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Symptoms of HIV Virus
HIV symptoms can be categorized into two distinct stages. The first stage of the Virus is known as the acute phase or the HIV-1.This is the earliest stage of the Virus. Recent research shows that about 40-90% of the people after contracting with HIV get flu-like symptoms that are persistent for approximately two to four weeks. However, during this stage, other people don’t experience these symptoms at all (Poindexter, 2013). Some of the most common symptoms include; chills, night sweats, fever, rash, fatigue, fatigue, mouth ulcers, muscle ache, swollen lymph nodes and sore throat. These symptoms can remain persistent for few days or several weeks. During this stage, the virus may not be noticeable even when some simple types of tests are done, but infected persons are very contagious and can infect others. In case a person has some of these symptoms, he or she should not assume that he has HIV in that each one of these symptoms can be caused by diseases (Poindexter, 2013).
 The second and the final phase is known as the Clinical Latency Phase. IT occurs after the early HIV stage has passed away. In this stage, the virus is still in an active state and is known to reproduce at meager rates. Infected persons may not experience any symptoms related to HIV but may have mild ones. In the absence of treatment, a person who HIV has progressed to this stage might have severe symptoms like; rapid weight loss, unexplained and extreme tiredness, prolonged swelling of lymph node on the groins and neck armpits, diarrhea that may last over a week, sours on the mouth,  genitals or the anus, pneumonia, memory loss, depression and other neurological conformities. Each one of the mentioned symptoms may also be linked to other diseases, and the only way to be sure is to get tested for HIV (Swanson, & Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2010).

Treatment and Prevention  
It is very unfortunate that HIV has no cure or vaccine despite numerous research, medical advancements, and biological innovation. The only way to prevent one from getting infected by HIV is through avoiding behaviors that might expose him or her to the risk of getting infected. In case a person is suspicious of having HIV after engaging in a risky activity or unprotected sex with a person who is already infected he or she should get tested immediately (Adler, 2012).  Detection of HIV in its early stages can have life-saving effects to the infected persons.  However, there is still hope for lives of people who have been infected with HIV. A person who is already infected with HIV can be put under an ART (Antiretroviral Treatment) to decrease the risk of transmitting HIV. ART is known to reduce or to suppress the HIV viral load in the bloodstream, vaginal fluids, semen and rectal fluids to levels so low that an HIV blood test cannot detect its existence in the body (Delhi, 2008). Under this condition, when one’s viral load remains undetected their health status will not be affected by the virus, and the likelihood of transmitting HIV to other people is low. For one to achieve this circumstance of suppressed viral load, he or she must have access to regular treatment viral monitoring and support from healthcare professional (Poindexter, 2013).
 However scientific attempts are still in progress of trying to get a permanent solution or a cure for HIV. HIV in most cases is known to leave devastating effects on the family and the community at large and in most cases, if not treated may lead to death. HIV is known to be one of the most lethal virus that has taken the lives of many people in the world before the invention of Antiretroviral Treatment mostly in the third world countries. It is imperative to take caution against engaging in risky behaviors that may expose one the HIV infection. People who are already infected with HIV should enroll in an HIV support system and take ART to avoid the adverse effects caused by the HIV.

Reference
Stolley, K. S., & Glass, J. E. (2009). HIV/AIDS. Santa Barbara, Calif: Greenwood Press
Whiteside, A. (2017). Hiv/aids: A very short introduction. Oxford University Press.
Adler, M. W. (2012). ABC of HIV and AIDS. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons.
HIV and AIDS: your questions answered. (2008). Delhi: Byword Books.
Volberding, P. (2008). Global HIV/AIDS medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier.
Swanson, B., & Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. (2010). ANAC’s core curriculum
For HIV/AIDS nursing. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.
Poindexter, C. C. (2013). Handbook of HIV and social work: Principles, practice, and
Populations. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
Jennings, C. (2012). HIV/AIDS: The facts and the fiction. Hudson, NH: Health
 Alert Communications.

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