p.p1 started around the 1800’s where there was

p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Helvetica; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000}
p.p2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Helvetica; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 14.0px}
p.p3 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 11.0px Helvetica; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 13.0px}
span.s1 {text-decoration: underline ; font-kerning: none}
span.s2 {font-kerning: none}

Have media globalisation process homogenised or diversed human culture? Discuss with reference to specific theories, concepts and examples 

This essay will be about globalisation and if it has affected human culture and the way we do things relating to the world. Globalisation no doubt has affected the world and made it what it is today, but is that due to the rise of companies and their control they have over what happens, or has this all happened naturally. Human culture also has changed since past history, for instance equality had become more and more equal, in history it has never been as equal as it is today. Throughout this essay I will discuss what globalisation is and why it doesn’t have a fixed meaning. But also what affect this change has had on culture itself. I will also discuss if there are any other options which relate to globalisation and what the positives and negatives have come of it. Homogenisation is another aspect I will analyse and weather or not it is right to think that with time everything is becoming similar.  

What is globalisation?
The simple definition of globalisation is a complex thing, no-one has the specific definition as they all vary. Giddens A (2002) suggests that “Globalisation is political, technological, and cultural as well as economic”. But Guttal S (2010) implies that Globalisation is a “variety of economic, cultural, social, and political changes that have shaped the world.” Although these definitions are similar but not exactly the same it proves that people can agree on Globalisation is about how the world is becoming more complex and globalisation is the result of this. People think that globalisation started around the 1800’s where there was a significant change in transporting and receiving long distance trade. This was due to telegraph and telephone communications becoming popular. In the early twentieth century European colonies were starting to establish, this also “saw some overseas expansion by American corporations” Brookes I, Weatherston J and Wilkinson G (2013). Then progressively the richer economies became richer as people were wanting more trade. Furthermore, the changes in technology played a big role in developing globalisation due to the increased popularity of people being able to have their own computers and the use of the mobile apps becoming more popular, this meant that people were able to communicate over long distances. This lead to the discussion social theorists argue “that the speed of social life over the past few decades has increased so greatly that social space has become “compressed”. Digital technologies like the Internet, for example, have allowed us to communicate virtually with anyone in the world at any time.” Taylor and Francis group (2016) This links to the suggestion that the world has become smaller as communication around the world become easier. Also the suggestion of that space has become compressed, the theory that previously it would take weeks to get to the other side of the world, but now it takes twenty four hours on a plane. 

How does globalisation effect culture?
Globalisation has an effect on most political, economic and cultural choices, this is what has shaped what we live in today. But globalisation has allowed for the spread of increased demand of service, this particularly relates to companies. For instance, in most developed countries now – due to high demand you will find well known companies and branches. As “most of the visual cultural expressions of globalisation are American , Coca cola and Macdonalds” Giddens A (2002).  But as a result of this it means that organisations are able to overrule government policies. Globalisation has affected culture because as previously of the increase in technology, making it easier to get to countries we are able to learn more about their cultures and their way of life. Globalisation doesn’t just effect cultures, but widely is effects countries as well. Both for the positive and the negative, some of the advantages of globalisation is that it allows the spread of “new opportunities for developing countries” Hamdi F (2013) This includes making living conditions better, but also slowly making it able for these countries to have technology such as allowing everyone to have mobile phones, similarly how most people do in the much more developed countries. 
But many people think that globalisation has some serious negative effects, particularly for countries which are least developed as Giddens A (2002) suggests that “A pessimistic view of globalisation would say largely it is the industrial north…south play no part.” Further explaining the point that developed countries are at an advantage, and that less developed countries cant keep up. Therefore a disadvantage of globalisation is that there is a clear significance that it making the richer countries able to establish more and therefore making themselves richer, but conversely the poorer countries cant develop quick enough therefore leaving them lagging behind and making them seem not as wealthy. “Globalisation can thus be understood as being as much a process of Westernisation as Easternisation” Matos Dr (2013). This shows that the western countries are more developed and therefore globalisation for them is a positive thing. But in the east globalisation isn’t helping as much therefore making it a negative thing, “globalisation is leading to a decline in governance…leads to post modern concerns and the rise of insecurity” Khan P and Dominelli L (2010).

Glocalisation 
This is a alternative view, contradicting with the term of globalisation, instead glocalisation is about how “product or service designed to benefit a local market, while at the same time being developed and distributed on a global level” Vaishu R (2016). This means that instead of products and services becoming globalised and therefore homogenised, this is an alternative way around it. So a product would still be sold globally therefore contributing to trade, but there is a slight difference between products sold showing that not all products are becoming the same. Such as Disney Land as it was “not that successful in Hong Kong. Disneyland then made an effort to cater to the local Chinese taste by reducing prices, adapting to local Chinese customs and labor practices and also changed the decors and settings.”Jain M (2010) This tailored the Disney Land experience to a group of people to make it more successful. Another example of glocalisation is that Netflix has become such a world wide phenomena, they have had to make sure that the shows shown on the website will keep people paying to watch them. For instance, if they all were the same people would become easily bored, and therefore would refuse to pay. 

What is Homogenisation?
Homogenisation is where differences become erased and the world becomes a single identical mass. Homogenisation is “basically something imposed on people by market forces.” Wang Y (2007) here Wang Y is explaining that people are not challenging society, rather than just accepting it when they are able to make their own decisions about. People have a choice and do not have to accept things if they don’t see fit. Whereas Pagel M (2014) suggests that homogenisation “is the  loss of diversity, identity or the westernization of society”. This is implying that everything is becoming the same, and that nothing really differs from one another anymore. On another angle of the world all becoming the same Giddens (2002) makes a valid suggestion that “Are national states, and hence national political leaders, still powerful or are they coming irrelevant to the forces shaping the world”. This also links to homogenisation because eventually every country is trying to reach the same level, optimum tourism and effective levels of capital. Is there a sense that political leaders are just helping that to happen, globalisation is shaping the world but political leaders are accepting that and therefore not challenging it. A final definition about homogenisation is that there are  “no significant differences.” Newman R (1982) 

Heterogenization
Even though this is seemed as similar to homogenisation, this relates to how people are different to one another, how they have different tastes and not everyone likes the same things. For instance, if a message is homogenous it will have different effects on people and people will interpret it in different ways. Heterogenization has also been defined as “cultural forms that move through time and space where they interact with other cultural forms/settings and influence each other, to produce new forms and changed cultural settings.” LH (2011) this is when what was seen as a regular of a culture, becomes adapted and interpreted differently to produce something new, such as classical music. This was just about an orchestra playing music to be peaceful, but more recently in Britains got Talent a act called Tokyo Myers who “wowed with his mash-up performance of Clair De Lume’s Claude Debussy and Ed Sheeran’s Bloodstream.” Donaldson L (2017). This is an example of how someone interpreted classical music differently to everyone else who heard it and made something brand new and exciting. 

Homogenisations effect on culture 
Homogenisation does infect effect culture because if everything is becoming the same, there is no diversity in their ways of live or the goods and services that consumers buy. It effects culture in one way due to the products consumers consume. People are unable to afford the well known dominant brands such as Coca Cola countries like India because as they don’t have as many wealthy people living there. Buying something as well known as coca-cola becomes a luxury whilst in the west, Coca Cola becomes an everyday part of peoples lives. Homogenisation has been “brought about by globalisation it is superficial and is limited to the material level of the consumer goods used by people and a certain consumer culture that is artificially promoted by the media”. Wany Y (2007) This shows that homogenisation is not a good thing and people are being publicised as being able to afford all these luxury items easily, when in fact thats only a small percentage of the world which is able to live like this.

Americanisation 
Relating to globalisation causing homogenisation there is also the concern/theory about Americanisation. Americanisation relates to the spread of American media through the world, it has been given the title of Americanisation. This was because America has also been the leading country when it comes to films and media. America was the first country to create tv programmes, such as soaps, dramas and comedies. Americanisation though has been analysed as promoting Americas way of life, and how it provides “new juxtapositions of the new rich and the new poor.” Featherstone M (1995)  In some sense this is pretty accurate because America wouldn’t want to promote the less that luxurious lifestyle that is still promoted today. Ameircanization suggests that in some way “we must all have a more common understanding of the opportunities and ideals of America”. Also relating to Americanisation we must also note that almost all well known brands originate from America. As I said previously you will usually find most of these companies in all the major cities. “For the first time in history, your morning cappuccino is the same no matter whether you are sipping it in Tokyo, New York, Bangkok or Buenos Aires.” Pagel M (2014) this continually suggests that American companies are taking over from niche coffee shops and that you will not be able to live in a city where there isn’t one easily accessible. This could be also seen as homogenisation because depending on what shop it is, it will all have the same basis, concept and meaning as an big well know American brand already. 
Americanisation also is relatable to media, and how every media programme as become homogenised that they are all fundamentally similar. It has been argued that Disney the creator of a majority of most well known children’s films has destroyed any cultural differences between people and places suggesting that the world is becoming homogenised and we are all evolving into the same person. This is also related to the programmes we watch for example The Great British Bake Off which was on BBC, and the Bake Off which then moved to channel 4. The concept was almost identical, only the people who presented the show had changed. But its not just cooking programmes which are all the same, a similar thing could be said with Ex on the Beach and Love Island. The concept of both these programmes are both the same, yet as an audience member watching this we wouldn’t realise the difference until we analysed it. 

Media and The World Today
Previously the media had been difficult to establish in some countries, as they were unable to have access to a telephone signal, so were unable to have mobile phones. Therefore, back in history communication between the countries was difficult. But nowadays due to the development in technology, almost every country will have mobile phone signal therefore meaning that most people will have a mobile phone. This means that there is no barrier to communication with another country. Also the use of the internet has made it easier for people to search queries to which they didn’t previously know the answer to. Social media has become a big impact in society today. Facebook has life videos which can be now be shared worldwide. Therefore meaning it is a ideal platform for news to be spread around the world quickly, so that aid and help can be sent. This use of live videos also means that countries which are less developed have a chance of having help sent to them sooner than as it would have been done previously. Also as mentioned at the beginning of the essay the advances in technology have meant that travelling abroad has become easier than ever.

In conclusion I would firstly mention that globalisation is a lot more complex than it would once seem. There are more underlying issues which relate to this, weather those are political or environmental. Globalisation affects them all. To an extent you could say that due to the changes happening to a country due to globalisation their culture has changed as a result of this. But it also bring about some benefits relating to countries, it enables countries to trade with one another and therefore bring in capital. But also brings about new opportunities to both the more developed countries and the lesser developed ones. But globalisations effect on culture isn’t necessarily a good thing if as a country you are unable to keep up and effectively get left behind. People view this as the “industrial North…the south play no part” implying that the richer countries are the ones who benefit, and the less developed ones are unable to keep up. But glocalisation has allowed a new viewing on things due to the fact that things are changed to suit countries, weather this be selling things more cheaply, or slightly adapting a product. Homogenisation suggests that with time every trade item will become the same and that there will be no originality but due to Heterogenization it has meant that services which were ones that same and unable to be changed, people see differently and adapt it to make something brand new and original .Therefore suggesting that Heterogenization is preventing everything becoming Homogenised. Finally due to Americanisation and the world today we are able to share and explore more of social media than ever before due to advances in technology. People are able to see worldwide news and have life updates of things happening due to the internet, diverting the way humans view the world and other countries culture.