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The
European Commission in the other hand aims to make more use of ITS
solutions to achieve a more efficient management of the transport
network for passengers and business for member states. The European
Commission works to set the ground for the next generation of ITS
solutions, through the deployment of Cooperative-ITS (C-ITS), paving
the way for automation in the transport sector. The C-ITS systems
allows data exchange through wireless technologies so that vehicles
can connect with each other, with the road infrastructure and with
other road users
(Directorate, 2017).
In 2006 the
European Commission implemented a safety program which was designed
to reduce road fatalities by 50% by 2010 as well as to improve the
efficiency of traffic congestion. The Car-to-Car Communications
Consortium (C2C-CC) initiative was introduced and started trials in
2001, the aim was to demonstrate the use of IEEE 802.11 WLAN
technologies for vehicles to communicate with each other within the
range of a few hundred meters. The programme works on the basis of
achieving sharing of information and warning messages such as traffic
load, driving conditions, road accident notifications and collision
avoidance systems. Moreover, many experimental efforts are still
ongoing to actualise the above objectives in these regards.

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In
Japan, some government agencies comprising the National Police
Agency, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, the
Ministry of Transport, the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications,
and the Ministry of Construction were assigned the responsibilities
of conduction research and implementations for actualising ITS.
The aim was to develop
excellent technology in the areas of Vehicle Information and
Communication Systems (VICS) and Electronic Toll Collection (ETC)
technology. The ETC enables wireless communication between a roadside
unit and on-board equipment of vehicles. The system records the toll
and other vehicle information from the on-board equipment; this makes
it possible for cars to pass through toll gates more efficiently,
without stopping to pay the toll and without getting stuck in toll
gate congestion
(Japan, 2017).
In accordance with the objectives of ITS programme Advanced
Safety Vehicle Program (ASV-2) (1996–2000), (ASV-3)
(2001–2005), (ASV-4) (2005–2007) were initiated. The Advanced
Safety Vehicle Program (ASV) program has been a series of ongoing
developmental projects covering a variety of trial phases and was
supported by the Japanese Ministry of Transport, automobile
manufacturers such as Honda, Mitsubishi, Suzuki and Toyota as well as
academia and research organisations
(Sherali Zeadally, 2010).
The goals of the programme is to enhance application services related
to warning systems, vision enhancement systems, navigation systems,
automatic collision avoidance systems and lane departure systems.

In
response to the developments in the US, Europe, and Japan, in 1980s
China launched ITS projects and set up its own ITS society
(Ting Zhu, 2015),
since then, Internet-based
travelling model and industry innovations have seen speedy
development in China. The country investment in intelligent
transportation industry is estimated to amount to about $30 billion
by 2020 (Chinadaily,
2015).
Today in China ITS
is treated as one of prioritized developmental industries in the
transportation field and part of the national planning (Ting
Zhu, 2015).
The successful implementations of Traffic Management Command and
Control System during Olympic Games in Beijing 2008 and Electronic
Toll Collection System are part of the achievements resulted from
investments in ITS
(Chinadaily,
2015).

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