P and visual experience in reply to a

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People think eyes are only
for seeing, but eyes have other importants like automatic visual
reflexes that most people doesnt aware about also. Their was study
conducted from researchers in the Perelman School of Medicine and
School of Arts and Science at the University of Pennsylvania
which shows that our reflexive system of
human eye also produces a conscious and visual experience. This
results helps in provide more information in excessive light
senstivity which is observed sometimes in people with conditions like
eye disease ,migraine headache and concussion ( the most common and
least serious type of traumatic brain injuiry is called a concussion)
.

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Study was focused to learn
more about the properties of melanopsin . Melanopsin is a
photopigment found specifically in ganglion cells of the retina and
its senstive to light and because of this it can regulate the
pupillary reflex and circadian rhythm ( sleep activity). For studying
this team made a special pulse of light that only act on the
melanopsin cells of eye . After this they allowed to show this light
pulse to people and individually measured their pupil respone and
their brain activity. Amazingly they found people have the brain
activity and visual experience in reply to a light which was
unoticeable to the parts of the eye which was normally used for
seeing.

According to the main
author he said it very difficult to know if we have visual experience
that follow these reflexes . As of now a normal light that promote
the cone celles ( they are the one of the three photoreceptor cells
in the retina in the human eye which are responsible for colour
vision and functions best in bright light). He also mentioned that we
do not have any information regarding what a person sees from
melanopsin or the cone cells.

For getting more
information , the team created a special type of a light pulse that
prompt melanopsin but its invisble to the cones cells .The special
lights were created by using a machine that can divide and switch
between computer designed rainbows of light . For this authors made
people to watch these light pulse and meanwhile their pupil responsed
were observed and recorded and in this way the reseachers concluded
that the light pulse that is invisible to the cone cells induce a
slow , reflexive constriction of the pupil that is a feature of
melanopsin stimulation and finally they measured the brain activity
by using the device of called MRI (
magnetic resonance imaging )and found the visual pathway of the brain
which responds to the melanopsin stimulus. This study was analyed by
another author who said that this is a very impressive finding .

Then
the same team done a another study to see that what people see with
melanospin. For this they took 20 people and then made to see the
pulses of light and contribute with the rating of various qualities.
After observing the light people reported that melanopsin prompt as a
cloudy kind of brightness , in different to the correct experienced
given by the cones .

After
completing all this study they said that we have very less melanospin
in our eye and its like a normal digital camera only that does not
have the enough pixels in it.
From
our observations melanopsin cells or system to give a cloudy and not
a clear image to the world.

This
study was mainly conducted because people with photophobia are
largely responsive to the bright light and later it involves in pain
. This study was conducted on the base of study in mice and
ultimately made them to taught that melanopsin effectively
contributes the discomfort of very bright light. At last they said in
our study they found that melanopsin add to be greater discomfort to
the people and photophobia people will observe a higher form of
reaction to melanopsin . Now we have a greater information in our
hands to access to explain excessive light senstivity.

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