Muhamad control. 1.0 Introduction The first lawn mower

Muhamad Arif Bin Abdul Jalil 1

1 Faculty
Of Engineering Technology In Electric, University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia,
Batu Pahat, Johor.

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Abstract

Due to the price of fuel in our
country not stable, the main source to powered lawn mower became a burden to
the user. Therefore, this project is to make a prototype of an innovation to
the lawn mower with combination of solar system and remote control. The lawn
mower is power up using green energy which is renewable energy. From the solar
system will generate Direct Current (DC) voltage to the DC motor. The solar
system is to replace the old system for lawn mower which is using fuel. The
remote control is to reduce the human energy for control the lawn mower.

 

Keywords: Solar Panel, D.C motor, Remote control.

1.0     Introduction

The first lawn mower
was invented by Edwin Budding in 1830 in Stroud, Gloucestershire, England. He
designed to cut the grass at the sports ground and extensive garden and the
early designed machine is made by cast iron and large rear roller with cutting
cylinder at the front. Budding’s invented this machine by using concept cloth
mill that used cutting blade to mounted or bench to trim cloth.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1: First design of lawn mower

In
1850, many companies were able to introduce their own machine by using
Budding’s pattern lawn mower. After that, in the middle of decade, another
mower were introduce which is called as Silents Messor  (Silent Cutter). This machine more quieter
and lighter than Budding’s lawn mower. By 1890, the lawn mower was powered by
petrol engine and steam power unit. This system using petrol is winning in the
market and until now days still using petrol as source to the lawn mower.

 

 

 

1.1    Problem statement

Normally, the workers
will use the lawn mower in the morning when the sun is directly to the head.
The workers will fatigue in short of period time because exposed to the heat
from the sun. The energy used to generate lawnmowers in our country mainly uses
gasoline. Therefore, lawn mower used the energy of gasoline, the engine will
produce a discharge of smoke which will be air pollution. So, with modifications on earlier
machines, can provide a reduction in the burden of the people with them a
lawnmower that uses solar energy. This machine uses solar energy and can be
controlled remotely. The method that proposed was a platform that could be
attached to an existing push lawnmower that many owners already own. 1 This
project will relieve the consumer from moving their own lawn mower. 2

 

 

 

 

 

1.2       Objective

To make this project successful,
the project must be achieved this objective:

i.                   
To
design a prototype of lawn mower that using green energy to reduce air
pollution.

ii.                 
To
reduce the energy that used by controlling the prototype using remote control.

 

1.3       Scope

To make
this project achieve the objective, the scopes of project are:

i.                   
The researcher focused on source to
powered the lawn mower using green energy which is using solar system.

ii.                 
The study about control the lawn mower
using remote control from a various range.

 

1.4       Expected result

At the
end of this project, the expected result is:

i.                   
The air pollution that produce by
lawnmower can be minimize or can be eliminated.

ii.                 
Energy for control the lawnmower can be reduce
by control it using remote control.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.4 

START

      Flow chart project

 

Data analysis

END

Literature Review

Study &
observation

Lawn mower
 
 

Record
information/data

Enough
information

NO

YES

PSM 1

PSM 2

Provide action
plan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.0       Literature Review

 

2.1. Introduction

 

Lawn mower are very importance in human life
to help them cutting the grass. Using the technology that already invented, it
will help human to improve them for using the lawn mower. This project is to
reduce air pollution with using green energy source and remote control to
reduce man power when handle this lawn mower. The different that have been
improved from previous version is the lawn mower is using green energy and can
be controlled using remote.

 

 

Table 1: Description of the previous report

 

Author
 

Topic

Description

Andrew Frandsen
 
Dustin Brouwer
 
Nathan Terschak
 
Jordan Newhof

1 RoMow

A lawn mower that can be control by remote control.
The several test already done to the machine and the data has been recorded.
The machine can cut the grass 2.5 inch height and this result is a little bit
height. The machine also has movement speed at 3.27 miles per hour which is
equal to 5.2 kilometer per hour. RoMow can be turning to left or right by
remote control. When the steering control is push to left or right, one side
of the wheel motor will stop while other will continue to rotate and the result
will give the machine to turn. The range to control this lawn mower is 1023
feet or 300 meters. They already tried about emergency stop protocol. First
they put power button on the side control panel of the RoMow controller which
will cut the power of all electronic device.
 

Darwin Ramos
 
Jessie Lucero

2 Lawn Buddy

A robot that use to cut the
grass without being control by human. This robot has several safety feature
which is  PIR sensor, Ultrasonic sensor
and Accelerometer. PIR sensor is used to detect human nearby. The robot will
not start or operated if any human is around it. Ultrasonic sensor is used to
sense the object infront of the robot. The robot will differentiate between
the wall and the grass. This robot is powered by using solar system and
battery. The place of sensor also is important to make the robot efficient
because they were really concern about human safety. This robot also to
reduce the air pollution in their country by 5% because their country is 90%
lawn mower using petrol and create 5% pollution.

Ashish kumar chaudhari
 
Yuvraj sahu
 
Prabhat Kumar Dwivedi
 
Harsh jain
 

3 Solar Powered Grass
Cutter

Lawn
mower that use solar to powered up their machine. The panel solar is mounted
to the lawn mower at the angle of 45° so the panel solar will receive the
solar radiation with high intensity from the sun. The solar panel will
convert the solar energy into electrical energy and the elctrical energy will
be stored in the battery. The solar charger is to control the current from
panel solar while charging the battery and disconnect when the battery is
fully charged. The motor is connected to the battery through the wire.
Between the motor and the battery, the motor driver is provide to start and
stop the motor. From this motor, it will rotate the blade with high speed and
cut the grass.
 

Tanimola
 
O.A
 
Diabana
 
P.D and Bankole
 
Y.O

4 Designing and development of a solar powered
lawn mower

This project is researching the lawn mower using
solar system to powered the mower. This is because the cost of fuel increase
and the emission effect of gasses to the atmosphere. Its also do the research
about height of the grass before and after mower the grass. The angle of
placement solar panel also affected the result to charging the battery.

Hajrush Aliu
 
Neeraj Gill

5 Remote Control Lawn Mower

This lawn mower using remote control to eliminate
the physical usage. It combine some of electronic parts and mechanical part
to make a perfect lawn mower. They using Spektrum DX5E RC remote control that
can control movement and turn on or off the gas engine.

 

 

3.0  Methodology

In this project we build a
prototype of the solar powered lawn mower with remote control. The
methodologies of these project are explained in a few sub headings.

 

3.1 Component of attachment

The
main components of this project is:

i.                   
Solar
panel

ii.                 
Batteries

iii.               
Motor

iv.               
Solar
charger

v.                 
Remote
control

 

3.1.1.      
Solar
panel

Solar
have 3 type which is monocrystalline, polycrystalline and thin film. Each of
this solar panel have their own pros and cons. In this project, we use
polycrystalline solar panel which is have the effieciency around 14% – 16%
lower to compared with monocrystalline is 21%. From the efficiency of those
solar panel, we can predict their cost for each solar panel. The
monocrystalline is higher effieciency but it cost also higher than
polycrystalline. The output of solar panel polycrystalline that we use is 12V
and 5W.

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2: Polycrystalline
solar panel

 

3.1.2.      
Batteries

The
batteris is important in this project to store the energy. The batteries are
used to store the energy that converted from solar to electric from the soalr
panel. It also use to supply the motor and arduino to make mower works. We will
use the 12V batteries . This battery usually use to powered the electronic
component in motorcycle. Cost for 1 battery is around RM45 – RM 65 with the
same type and specification.

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 3: Battery 12V

 

 

3.1.3.      
Motor

In
this project we will use 2 types of motor for different purpose which is DC
motor and servo motor. DC motor in this project is use to running the blade
mower. The specification of the motor is listing below:

 

 

Table 2: specification of
DC motor

 

Input

12V

Current with load

1.5 A

Speed (RPM)

19000

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 4: DC motor

 

Servo
motor is used to make the mower can move. The servo motor is connected to the remote
regulator. Servo motor also need to have higher torque to accomodate the load
above the motor which is component of the mower.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 5: Servo motor

 

3.1.4.      
Solar
charger

The
solar charger is know as charger controller, voltage regulator and load
controller. The solar charger is between the solar panel and the batteries. By
monitoring the voltage of the battery, the solar charger is prevents the
batteries from overcharging or discharging. The solar charger is connected in
series to the application to avoid the overcharging and should be disconnect
the load from battery to precent discharging. The solar charger has 3 LED
light. The first blink LED is indicator to know the batteries is charging by using
solar energy. The second blink LED is when the batteries is very low. The last
blink LED is indicator when the batteries are fully charge.

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 6: Solar Charger /
Regulator

 

 

3.1.5.      
Remote
control

They
are two type of remote control which is Infrared (IR) and Radio Frequency (RF).
Infrared type is remote tahat emit light to the equipment that we want control.
The working concept is like torchlight. We must point to the correct direction
and we can see the thing we want to look. Similar to the infrared, we need to
point the remote directly to the equipment without being disturb by obstruction
in front of the remote or equipment. This is because infrared is trasmit
through the light.

 

For
radio frequency (RF), the working system is different with IR. RF can still
working even we not point directly to the equipment that we want to control.
The concept of RF is similar to walkie- talkie. We can still communicate in
different room while behind the solid wall. This is because the RF is using
radio frequency not with light.

In
this project, we will use the RF remote control to control the lawn mower
without being disturbing by an obstacle. The range of the remote to control the
mower also affected to control it because the purpose is to avoid man power
push the mower under the sun ray.

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 7: RF remote
control

 

 

 

 

3.2  
Block
diagram of project

Solar panel

Battery

Motor Driver

Blade motor

Remote

Movement motor

Voltage Regulator

 

–         
 

–         
 

–         
 

–         
 

–         
 

–         
 

–         
 

–         
 

 

 

 

 

Figure 8: Block diagram lawn mower.

 

 

 

 

3.2.      
Flow
chart process

YES

Solar panel

Solar
Regulator

Battery

Voltage
regulator

Motor Driver

Direction
Motor

END

NO

Blade Motor
 

 
 

 

 

 

 

4.0     Results and Discussions

The result that produce is bases on the
methodology that we make. Some reading are get after the prototype fully
combine and the others is before its fully combine. Here are the result for
this prototype.

 

4.1
Blade

In this prototype, I use nylon string
to be its blade because it more lightly and easily to handle. It also not too
harmful to user because not sharp like a steel blade. The length of the nylon
string bases on user how long to cut it. In this prototype I use 30mm before
knot the end of the nylon. The base for the nylon is steel and can be place 2
until nylon string. Commonly, only 2 strings already enough for the lawn mower
to mower the grass.

 

Figure 9: Nylon string and base of the nylon

 

4.2 coupling

Coupling is
using to make the dc motor can be attach to the base of the nylon string. In
this project, I use coupling 8mm size to attach with the base. To make more
stronger, the base of the nylon were welding to make its tight when the motor
is running.

 

Figure 10: The base are welding with coupling

 

 

4.3 Output base on time

 

Table
3: Result output solar panel  

 

 Time

Morning (9.00 am – 10.00 am)

Afternoon (12.00 pm – 1.00 pm)

Evening (4.00 pm – 5.00 pm)

Output Motor (V)

11.55

12.94

11.89

Input battery (V)

12.01

12.96

12.31

Solar Output (V)

12.42

13.20

12.56

 

The output of solar panel is depending
on sunlight that receive by solar panel. Table 2 shows the output and input of
the battery also the motor depending on time which is morning, afternoon and
evening. The highest output for solar panel to generate the voltage is at the
afternoon because at that time the temperature are really high. At that time
also solar panel receive the sun ray that emitted from sun at high rate.

 

 

4.4
Output in 1 hours

 

Figure 11: The output voltage in 1 hours

 

 

From figure 9, the result is taken in a
hours duration. The result were recorded every 15 minutes from the motor not
run until reach 60 min. when motor stay still, the solar generate 13.2V, the
battery is 12.95V and motor produce output 12.93V. as we can see here, the value
of voltage that being produce by solar is higher than battery and battery
output is higher than motor output. When the motor start to run, the voltage of
those three outputs drop little bit to 12.83V, 12.60V and 12.57V. The result
that were taken are not consistent because its depend on the sun ray and if the
sun being block by cloud the, it will affect the value of solar output. In this
result also, we can see that the solar output must be higher than battery
output because if the output solar less than battery output, the battery cannot
be charge by the solar.

 

 

4.5
Time for charging the battery

 

Figure 12: Current and voltage produce by solar

 

 

Figure 10 is the period for charging
the battery in 1 hours. The current that produce by solar is really small value
which in milliampere. This is because the voltage that produce by solar is
higher. Its can be calculated using ohm’s law formula which is V=IR, where V is
voltage, I is current and R is resistance. From this formula, we can prove that
when voltage is higher the current will decrease because in this formula the
current and voltage are inversely proportional. Normal for fully charge battery
is in 1hours using 1A current.

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.0     Conclusions

After performing a number of tests and trials on how the lawn mower, it
can be concluded that a nearly accurate and proven by the result. However, a
few errors had occurred in certain trials, the percentage of error was minimal.
The machine can perform its best if the tire of the lawn mower suitable with
the type of land.

The design was also implemented in the best ways to
make the solar panel can absorb and generate voltage at maximum point. The
solar panel is place with certain angle to make it reach the maximum point. The
motor driver can control the speed of the mower by adjust the potential
resistor to set speed that I desired. The remote control is set to control four
servo motor using single regulator. After the setup at the regulator, I can
control the movement of the lawn mower using the remote.

Acknowledgement

First and foremost, I offer my sincerest gratitude to my supervisor Pn
Azlina Bt Bahari who has a lot to give guidance, advice and ideas in the
process of implementation of this project. Besides that, she has also helped me
to complete the project from beginning to end until the project is
successfully. I also offer my regardless to my colleges for help me and support
me in the time I want to finish this project. Last but not least, my profound
gratitude to my parents that give me courage and who inspired me to study in
UTHM. Their encouragements have made me to reach at this level and complete my
bachelor degree.

 

 

References

 

 

1 Jordan
Newhof, Andrew Frandsen, Dustin Brouwer, Nathan Terschak, “RoMow
Project”.Calvin College. P10, 2015. 

2   Darwin Ramos Jessie Lucero, Solar Powered
Automatic Lawn Mower “Lawn Buddy”, P3, december 9, 2009.

3   Author, Ashish Kumar. , Author, Yuvraj Sahu. ,
Author, Prabhat Kumar. , Author, Harsh Jain. (2016). Experimental Study of Solar Power Grass Cutter Robot, 2 (2), 68-73

4   Tanimola, O. A, Diabana, P. D and Bankole, Y. O.
(2014). Design and Development of   a Solar Powered Lawn Mower. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering
Research, Volume 5, Issue 6.

5   Hajrush Aliu, Neeraj Gill, (2011). Remote Control Lawn Mower. Page 6.

 

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