Monika RichczajdMr. PastvaAPUSH II P21/29/18Chapter 25 VocabularyYalta Conference: A meeting between president Roosevelt, Great Britain’s prime minister, Winston Churchill and Soviet Union’s Joseph Stalin, located in Yalta on February of 1945. Here the leaders analyzed the Germany’s treatment post WWII, Poland’s status, the United Nations and Russia’s entrance into war against Japan. Roosevelt wanted to maintain unity with the Allies but Stalin disagreed implying that Russia’s security needed Soviet governments in Europe. Instead of Roosevelt’s “Declaration on Liberated Europe”, he agreed to Stalin’s pledge. As an end result, Germany would be ruled by one of the powers and split into four sections; the League of Nations would soon be replaced. United Nations: An improved group which replaced the League of Nations and established a General Assembly along with a Security Council. This allowed for five permanent members to reject the decisions made by the General Assembly.Potsdam Conference: Held in Berlin on July 1945 where Truman took place of president instead of FDR. Truman’s first action was to confront Stalin so he could take the reparations of Germany for his zone. Because of this successful agreement, Germany was divided into two parts, east and west. Containment: A term established by Americans which was a straightforward plan regarding the Soviet Union. It was later the policy in the United States during the Cold War which stated that a communist government only occurred in the respectful geographic borders. At first containment was applicable to the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe but in the 1950s, it later spread to countries like North Korea and China. Truman Doctrine: Created after Truman’s fear that there would be a victorious communist state by the Soviet Union in Greece after they could no longer upheal to anticommunists in their civil war. Truman provided support for Turkey and Greece.Marshall Plan: A pledge that depended on Congress to finance, which at first was non negotiable. After the Stalin was in favor for a group in Czechoslovakia that was led by communists, Congress quickly rallied in support of the Marshall Plan which would aid $13 billion to recovering efforts (mainly from WWII) for Western Europe and America. On the downside, this plan increased pressure for the Cold War, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): A peacetime military alliance between the United States and the twelve other nations. This agreement stated that an armed attack against more than one European nation would be known as a threat to all the countries. Warsaw Pact: Established by the Soviet Union in response to the NATO which was an association for Eastern Europe including Bulgaria, Albania, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, the Soviet Union and Romania. This was a distinct line between dividing the whole continent, which increased tensions for the start of the Cold War. NSC-68: A name for the report that the National Security council addressed. This was a turning point for the United States in nudging the Cold War, as it labeled the Soviet Union a nation with “fanatic faith” that wants to enforce superiority upon the European, Asian landmasses. Cold War Liberalism: Truman and his democratic party maintained the liberal principles of the welfare state of New Deal in order to go against the influences of the Soviets. Taft-Hartley Act: Passed in 1947 that created alterations in systems and languages that minimized the right to organize and take part in collective bargaining for workers. Unions hated this act as they could not advance any “right-to-work” laws in union shops and forced them to remove any communists from the union. This reconditioned what was originally the National Labor Relations Act from 1935. // Outlawed the “closed shops” and allowed right to work policies. Non union members could organize in union jobs. Fair Deal: Truman’s proposition in 1949 that included health insurance, educational support, programs for housing, Social Security enlargement, an increase in minimum wage and improved strategies for agriculture. It represented the progress of African Americans voting democratically. Loyalty-Security Program: A commission created by Truman in 1947 that ordered an investigation for any workers issued in the federal government for disruptive activities. The federal agencies resulted in complete appaul. Truman wanted this program to go along actions like treason or sabotage but the principles were broadly dispersed (petitions, marching in a demonstration, etc). House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC): A house committee started by a Texan Congressman, Martin Dies, in which public hearings were held people who were suspected to be communists. The most known event from the HUAC is the Hollywood Ten. Asked about political beliefs in front of members of Congress. Helped associate with the Red Scare. If taken into account by the HUAC, chances of getting employed were low. “New Look”: An idea established during Eisenhower’s presidency that wanted to make the U.S. military more powerful. Included defense policies such as hydrogen bombs and B-52 bombers. Domino Theory: Eisenhower’s ideology that if the French were unsuccessful, other nations that did not have communists governments would also collapse one after the next. This was an addition to the containment doctrine. Eisenhower Doctrine: Stated that the United States would help and aid any Middle Eastern countries that resisted communism. Bay of Pigs: A CIA operation that wanted to overthrow Fidel Castro in 1961; it was considered a huge failure. 1,400 American men were defeated by Castro’s force. Cuban missile crisis: An event that occurred for 13 days in October 1962 where nuclear weapons were suspended due to the overwhelming conflict. This was one of the most closest times the United States and the Soviet Union came to war. Afterwards, the U.S. removed missiles located in Turkey and promised to remove missiles from Cuba as well. Peace Corps: A two year commitment issued by Kennedy, which encouraged Americans to volunteer and help out by teaching and hoping to improve social along with economic development in third world regions. By doing this, the nation aimed to promote democracy and America in general. Joseph Stalin: Dictator of the Soviet Union (1928-1953). He led the Bolshevik Revolution and was a prominent figure of the Soviet Communists. He associated with the Five-Years Plan to expand production in industries and made the acts of fear rise to crush opposition. George F. Kennan: American diplomat who birthed the idea of containment. He wanted to stop the Soviets, originating the idea that the U.S. could contain the Soviet Union. Joseph McCarthy: 821 U.S. politician who blamed citizens for being communists and spies, leaking information to the Soviet Union, yet had no resources. The idea of McCarthyism was the frightening allegations of anybody being involved in communism. His attention spread when he charged communists of penetrating the government. He started many investigations upon communism influencing foreign policy. Nikita Khrushchev: The leader of the Soviet Union after Stalin died. He shocked his nation and the American people for denouncing Stalin. He allowed people to criticize Stalin in Russia.John F Kennedy: President during the time of the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Berlin Wall formation and partially for the Vietnam War. Had charisma, style and a great personality- ideal for a president. He was considered a WWII hero. He molded the United States foreign policies with a past style of Cold War politics. Attracted Catholics and African Americans during the election of 1960 and his presidency. Fidel Castro: Cuban socialist leader who displaced the 1959 dictator, Fulgencio Batista, announcing a revolution. He created a Marxist socialist stance in Cuba. Ho Chi Minh: Leader of communist North Vietnam who battled the French and the Americans to a halt in Vietnam. Some viewed him as a nationalist but others thought he was an agent to the Soviet Union and China.