Lorenzo N-Mote to N-Gateway are connected through Zigbee.

Lorenzo proposed 8 a new WSN (Wireless
Sensor Network) system for monitoring landslides using Wi-MAX . The system has
three levels i) Gateway level manages data aggregation and storage and also
coordinate with WSN ii) Server Level stores data on remote server iii) Node
Level (Peripheral nodes) consists of a sensor board having sensors etc. Nodes
are placed in landslide area and can make an ad-hoc WSN. Where a sensor should
be placed in a ground is decided by integrating a wideband technology with
radar technology, it helps in improving the accuracy. To reduce the noise
Kalman filter is used. Sensor nodes are arranged in a hierarchical manner. X,y
and z coordinates of every node is noted day by day to check the daily movement
of landslide.

 

A.   
Li-Fi

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R.Karthika
proposes the use of Li-Fi in disaster management 14 .Li-Fi is typically
implemented using white LED light bulbs at the downlink transmitter. The
operational procedure is very simple-, if the LED is on, you transmit a digital
1, if it’s off you transmit a 0. visible light is used between 400 THz (780 nm)
and 800 THz (375 nm) as optical carrier for data transmission and illumination
in VLC, which is the method of wirelessly, using rapid pulses of light to
transmit information. Fast pulses of light are used to transmit information
wirelessly. On one end all the data on the internet will be streamed to a lamp
driver when the LED is turned on the microchip converts the digital data in
form of light.

B.   
Zigbee

In the proposed system by M Chaitra, et al
5; ZigBee is used as a module for remote correspondence in information
acquisition along with three sensors. The sensors utilized are Soil moisture
sensor, Humidity sensor and accelerometer sensor. When the threshold values are
crossed, warning would be generated. Using zigbee we can communicate at high
data rates. We can use these ZigBee modules anywhere even in forests, mountains
because external connection are not required.

 

Fig.8
Transmitter Circuit 6

 

Pranav Pravin Garje et.al 6 have examined
the sites that were prone to disaster and used sensors over them to detect. Connections
of sensors to microcontroller (N Mote) that handles and gathers the data from
the sensors. N-Mote to N-Gateway are connected through Zigbee. Connection of
N-Mote to cloud which are connected to internet through wifi or Ethernet is
through gateway (N Gateway). the data is sent to respective organizations
(rescue teams) when the certain threshold is exceeded.

C.   
Ultra-wide band (UWB)

Christian
Arnhardt developed of an autonmous sensor network called “SLEWS” that is
suitable for the detection and the observation of mass movements15.They used
special sensors such as inclinometer, pressure sensor, hygrometer, humidity
sensors or linear position sensors. Those sensors have high accuracy, for example
less than one millimetre. Price and accuracy stand in direct relation. All
these sensors are local sensors with output about local phenomena. To get
acceptable information about land slips, the measuring methods must be accurate
to one centimetre. Therefore, Ultra-wide band (UWB) technologies, which promise higher accuracies
(sub-centimetre), may be applicable. Ultra-wide band has the possibility to
send information with or without a carrier frequency. The absolute bandwidth is
more than 500 MHz. The relative bandwidth is a quarter of the middle frequency.
The frequency ranges between 0,1 – 0,96 GHz and 3,1 – 10,6 GHz but the
information is sent with a low-power (max. -41,3 dBm/MHz). The maximum range
for this method is therefore 50 metres.

D.  
GPRS

Jayant Rajaram
et.al, 16 designed the real time system for landslide detection using 89s52
controller and ATmega328 controller. The main component used in this system is
zigbee, GPRS. They attached three sensors like moisture sensor, accelerometer,
rain sensor, flex sensor. In transmitter section the sensors connected to 89c52
controller. Data collected from sensors send to monitoring centre through
monitoring host. If monitoring host detect any value above threshold value then
it send to surrounding resident. System requires low power, stable processing
speed, so we use ATmega328 controller, zigbee module and also GPRS module
available in monitoring host. It is communication interface between sensor
nodes and monitoring centre. During normal operation monitoring host send data
to monitoring centre, if any sensor detect value above threshold value then
GPRS send data to surrounding resident.

 

E.   
Satellite

An
early warning system of four level (Zero, Outlook Attention and Warning) was
developed. 27 Threshold was chosen through Velocity of the landslide
occurrence. Expert advice and judgement also included to avoid false alarm.
Devices like rain gauge and moisture content was measured. Different sensors
like tilt meter etc. was used to detect landslide. Wireless data transmission
was done through satellite while data processing done using different Map and
data servers. Then warning to the local authority if the level of landslide is
high.

 

 

Drawing upon
the recent advances of satellite remote-sensing technology and landslide
modelling techniques, a framework is proposed to attempt an early warning
system for landslide hazards after heavy rainfall and/or earthquake, the two
major triggers for landslides 20. This framework includes three major
components, landslide prone area information, database, including geology,
elevation, topography, soil, and land-cover types; secondly a real-time
space-borne precipitation estimation system and lastly, a near-real-time
ground-shaking prediction system after earthquakes. To achieve good results,
the main aim is to get early warning before the disaster so that lives could be
saved.Lorenzo proposed 8 a new WSN (Wireless
Sensor Network) system for monitoring landslides using Wi-MAX . The system has
three levels i) Gateway level manages data aggregation and storage and also
coordinate with WSN ii) Server Level stores data on remote server iii) Node
Level (Peripheral nodes) consists of a sensor board having sensors etc. Nodes
are placed in landslide area and can make an ad-hoc WSN. Where a sensor should
be placed in a ground is decided by integrating a wideband technology with
radar technology, it helps in improving the accuracy. To reduce the noise
Kalman filter is used. Sensor nodes are arranged in a hierarchical manner. X,y
and z coordinates of every node is noted day by day to check the daily movement
of landslide.

 

A.   
Li-Fi

R.Karthika
proposes the use of Li-Fi in disaster management 14 .Li-Fi is typically
implemented using white LED light bulbs at the downlink transmitter. The
operational procedure is very simple-, if the LED is on, you transmit a digital
1, if it’s off you transmit a 0. visible light is used between 400 THz (780 nm)
and 800 THz (375 nm) as optical carrier for data transmission and illumination
in VLC, which is the method of wirelessly, using rapid pulses of light to
transmit information. Fast pulses of light are used to transmit information
wirelessly. On one end all the data on the internet will be streamed to a lamp
driver when the LED is turned on the microchip converts the digital data in
form of light.

B.   
Zigbee

In the proposed system by M Chaitra, et al
5; ZigBee is used as a module for remote correspondence in information
acquisition along with three sensors. The sensors utilized are Soil moisture
sensor, Humidity sensor and accelerometer sensor. When the threshold values are
crossed, warning would be generated. Using zigbee we can communicate at high
data rates. We can use these ZigBee modules anywhere even in forests, mountains
because external connection are not required.

 

Fig.8
Transmitter Circuit 6

 

Pranav Pravin Garje et.al 6 have examined
the sites that were prone to disaster and used sensors over them to detect. Connections
of sensors to microcontroller (N Mote) that handles and gathers the data from
the sensors. N-Mote to N-Gateway are connected through Zigbee. Connection of
N-Mote to cloud which are connected to internet through wifi or Ethernet is
through gateway (N Gateway). the data is sent to respective organizations
(rescue teams) when the certain threshold is exceeded.

C.   
Ultra-wide band (UWB)

Christian
Arnhardt developed of an autonmous sensor network called “SLEWS” that is
suitable for the detection and the observation of mass movements15.They used
special sensors such as inclinometer, pressure sensor, hygrometer, humidity
sensors or linear position sensors. Those sensors have high accuracy, for example
less than one millimetre. Price and accuracy stand in direct relation. All
these sensors are local sensors with output about local phenomena. To get
acceptable information about land slips, the measuring methods must be accurate
to one centimetre. Therefore, Ultra-wide band (UWB) technologies, which promise higher accuracies
(sub-centimetre), may be applicable. Ultra-wide band has the possibility to
send information with or without a carrier frequency. The absolute bandwidth is
more than 500 MHz. The relative bandwidth is a quarter of the middle frequency.
The frequency ranges between 0,1 – 0,96 GHz and 3,1 – 10,6 GHz but the
information is sent with a low-power (max. -41,3 dBm/MHz). The maximum range
for this method is therefore 50 metres.

D.  
GPRS

Jayant Rajaram
et.al, 16 designed the real time system for landslide detection using 89s52
controller and ATmega328 controller. The main component used in this system is
zigbee, GPRS. They attached three sensors like moisture sensor, accelerometer,
rain sensor, flex sensor. In transmitter section the sensors connected to 89c52
controller. Data collected from sensors send to monitoring centre through
monitoring host. If monitoring host detect any value above threshold value then
it send to surrounding resident. System requires low power, stable processing
speed, so we use ATmega328 controller, zigbee module and also GPRS module
available in monitoring host. It is communication interface between sensor
nodes and monitoring centre. During normal operation monitoring host send data
to monitoring centre, if any sensor detect value above threshold value then
GPRS send data to surrounding resident.

 

E.   
Satellite

An
early warning system of four level (Zero, Outlook Attention and Warning) was
developed. 27 Threshold was chosen through Velocity of the landslide
occurrence. Expert advice and judgement also included to avoid false alarm.
Devices like rain gauge and moisture content was measured. Different sensors
like tilt meter etc. was used to detect landslide. Wireless data transmission
was done through satellite while data processing done using different Map and
data servers. Then warning to the local authority if the level of landslide is
high.

 

 

Drawing upon
the recent advances of satellite remote-sensing technology and landslide
modelling techniques, a framework is proposed to attempt an early warning
system for landslide hazards after heavy rainfall and/or earthquake, the two
major triggers for landslides 20. This framework includes three major
components, landslide prone area information, database, including geology,
elevation, topography, soil, and land-cover types; secondly a real-time
space-borne precipitation estimation system and lastly, a near-real-time
ground-shaking prediction system after earthquakes. To achieve good results,
the main aim is to get early warning before the disaster so that lives could be
saved.

x

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