Literature and important public health epidemic worldwide. Also,

Literature Review Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) a serious and important public health epidemic worldwide. Also, TBI injuries are classified based on severity to different categories as mild, moderate, and severe. In this study, they will compare the extent of damage and its causes, while discussing the differences and similarities. Leading Causes of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) According to Langlois et al. (2004) notes that the leading causes of TBI are falls, motor vehicle crashes, collisions, assaults, and other unknown causes. Overall, Faul et al. (2010) emphasizes that TBI incidents are higher in males between the age of 14-24 years also it is twice as females (Faul et al., 2010). However, children between the age of 0-4 years and adolescents between the age of 15-19 years are more prone to experience TBI then other age groups (Langlois et al., 2004). TBI’s could ultimately result in a long-term struggle depending on the extent of damage that occurred to the brain and the level of severity (HHS,1998). Also, McAllister et al. (2001) states that TBI is one of the most disabling injuries (McAllister et al., 2001). Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) Valente and Fisher (2011) state that 75% of the Mild TBI (MTBI) cases, cause a major physiological disturbance that is often missed by primary care clinicians (Valente and Fisher, 2011). Mild TBI’s often are accompanied by depression, which results in poor recovery (Rau V et al., 2010). Valente and Fisher (2011) specifies that common symptoms associated with (MTBI) are the following: fatigue, headaches, memory loss, loss of balance, seizures, poor concentration, and sleep disturbance. Also, Valente and Fisher (2011) followed by adding that these symptoms are commonly associated with nausea, loss of smell, mood change, and sensitivity to light and sound (Valente and Fisher, 2011). However, Geijerstam JL and Britton M. (2003). Characterized MTBI by having 10% risk for a contusion, subdural or epidural hematoma, brain swelling, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Also, Kuppermann et al. (2009). Adds that Cranial hematoma is a possibility too, which requires an immediate neurosurgical operation that has a very low mortality rate of 0.1% in adults and even lower in children (Kuppermann et al., 2009). Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury Moderate traumatic brain injury was stated by Holsinger et al. (2002). to having 1.5% higher depression risk than (MTBI) (Holsinger et al., 2002). Also, Plassman et al. (2000). Agreed and added TBI increase by aging chances of getting Alzheimer’s disease by 2.3 and 4.5 times in moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (Plassman et al., 2000). Furthermore, it was emphasized by Valente and Fisher (2011). That often most of the times MTBI symptoms grows to Moderate TBI, which includes the following common symptoms: a persistent headache, constant vomiting, dilation of pupils, loss of coordination, agitation, and numbness (Valente and Fisher, 2011). Moderate and severe TBI patients mostly experience cognitive impairment and/or permanent physical disability (Uomoto and Esselman, 1993). Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (STBI) Saatman et al. (2008). states that patients with severe TBI are presumed to have higher mortality and morbidity rates, also patients with STBI commonly are represented with head deformities caused by TBI and are often represented with multiple of other injuries such as: scalp laceration and contusion, skull fracture (Saatman et al., 2008). Similarly, STBI is commonly associated with brain disturbance due to the abnormal brain activation post-trauma (Scheibel et al., 2007).


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