Levels of preventions are subdivided into three categories: primary, secondary and tertiary level. First is the Primary level of prevention. It is the most basic and the most desirable form of prevention since it primarily focuses on the avoidance of the occurrence of a problem. It provides specific protection against diseases. Primary preventive actions spare the client from the costs, discomforts and threats to the quality of life that an illness may cause. The Secondary level of prevention is where the actual problem has already occurred.
Its focus is on the early diagnosis and treatment of the disease to at least prevent, delay, or stop further complications, thus limiting disability. The Tertiary level of prevention begins early in the period of the client’s recovery from illness. It occurs when a disease or disability is present or is permanent and irreversible. It focuses more on the rehabilitation to either restore or maximize an individual to an optimal level of functioning as well helping the individual learn to cope and live productively even with the presence of certain limitations.
The three levels of prevention each have corresponding health programs. As for the primary level of intervention, Primary preventive measures would include educating, counselling, lifestyle modifications, health education programs for communities, wellness and fitness programs, mandatory immunization for children, environmental sanitation activities, the adoption other specific health practices and other programs geared towards the safety and wellness of the community.
Secondary preventive measures can be delivered in hospitals, homes and other secondary facilities. It comprises diagnostic screening programs, public education to promote self examinations to be able to recognize early signs and symptoms of certain diseases. The tertiary level which focuses more on the rehabilitation includes strict compliance of giving medications, moving and positioning to prevent complications, passive/active exercises, and continuing health supervision during rehabilitation.