Irving Kennedy (1993, 1994), studied the effect of

Irving exposed the respondents to one of three photo containing highly attractive models and the respondent answered a questionnaire that included items from a body self-esteem scale. Martin and Kennedy (1993, 1994), studied the effect of age when exposed to images of idealized beauty, and found that while younger females treat advertisement featuring highly attractive models as a means for self improvement while older females tend to engage in more of a comparison process when viewing advertisements, especially those females who regard themselves as less attractive or have a lower self-esteem. The older females viewed the advertisement as representing ideals to which they could only aspire and not to attain (Martin and Kennedy, 1994). Further exploring about how visual in advertisement play a big roll in females perception is through Richin (1991), studied female college students and found that after a few viewing a pictures of highly attractive models, the students were more likely to rate a photograph of an average model as less attractive. The exposure to the pictures of highly attractive models also negatively affected the respondents feelings about their own attractiveness.On the other hand, viewing advertisement containing highly attractive models raises the standard of comparison which has leads to a lower attractiveness ratings for both the respondents and the picture that contain average models. Pinhas (1998), found that exposure to images of highly attractive female models leads to increased feelings of anger and depression. Women exposure to ideal media images and measured the effect of those images relative to the respondents initial body satisfaction score. Again, the women with an initially high body dissatisfaction score reported higher feelings of concern regarding their self image. The women were shown either a slide containing a picture of an attractive but not unrealistic beauty, a normal standard beauty college student and a slide containing a picture of highly unrealistic attractive model. Both of the studies show the gap between a woman’s self perception and a model’s relative beauty are strong indicators of how the advertisement could affect a women self-esteem (Posavac, 1998). However, a study found that using less extremely thin models may have the opposite effect. Since the respondents are not engaging in an upward comparison or unattainable state they tend to perceive moderately thin or moderately overweight models as more look like themselves (Smeesters and Mandel, 2006).Further discussion at this point as they explore the importance of convergence between the product and the message communicated by a models image (Bower and Landreth, 2001). According to (Bower and Landreth 2001), put on an interesting conclusions that highly attractive models may not be the most effective advertising communicators for all types of beauty product but they found that although very attractive models are well suited to promoting products which enhance attractiveness, lipstick for example, very attractive models are not necessarily more effective than normally attractive models when the product are problem solving such as anti wrinkle cream.The dove study (2006), stated that the narrow physical definition of beauty portrayed by mass media creates an appearance anxiety and a desire for perfection among a large number of women. Richins (1991), however find that exposure to advertisement with images of a very attractive women did not on the whole appear to increase respondents dissatisfaction with their body shape. The perceptions of female stereotypes in advertisements concluded that differing perceptions may contribute to the development of eating disorders which are ultimately negative responses to body shape (Gustafson , 2001).Bjerke and Polegato (2006), study found that the use of visuals and their specific characteristics are of prime importance especially in cross cultural advertising.Advertising has been vilified for upholding perhaps even creating the emaciated standard of beauty by which girls are taught from childhood to judge the worth of their own bodies (Stephens, 1994). 2.6 Facebook As An Effective Platform Facebook is a social networking site known as a medium to communicate with closest people, relatives even knowing a person. It can be accesses via computer that is connected to the internet and nowadays it is easier using smart phone. Users can also join the group organized by workplace, school, college and business. Facebook is not only allowing users to post text, Facebook also let users upload pictures and videos for business. This can be a powerful way to communicate with customers and potential customers, allowing other user to see the advertising about the product without having to visit the store. There are many promotional tools that can be used by marketers in marketing their own products, such as advertising, direct selling, sales promotion, personal selling, public relations, and internet marketing. Furthermore, Facebook advertisement are easy to be found by every users without having to ask them permission to post it. Facebook is one of the social media in the form of social networking that can be use as marketing medium that will not cost any fees and have many followers worldwide. It cannot be denied that with the using of Facebook promotional market, commercials can be quickly conveyed to all Facebook users. Facebook are known as most widely used social network in the world and that makes it easier to spread video commercials.Through Facebook company can build relationship between brand. Facebook is a low cost marketing strategy that would cost thousands of ringgit through other marketing medium. This is what makes Facebook ideal for a small medium business with a limited marketing budget. Furthermore, Facebook is a social media platform that has long existed and is still widely used today. Entrepreneurs using Facebook can choose from a variety of options to promote their business including professional pages, paid post promotion, and native advertisement. Facebook access is so wide that some business entrepreneurs choose to have only Facebook page and have no website.


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