# Inventory results in sales. In other words, this

Inventory Turnover Ratio:

This ratio indicates
the number of times inventory is replaced during the year. It measures the
relationship between the cost of goods sold and the inventory level. The ratio
can be computed in

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Cost
of goods sold

Inventory Turnover Ratio =
___________________

Average
Inventory

The average inventory figure may be of
two types. In the first place, it may be the monthly inventory average. The
monthly average can be found by adding the opening inventory of each month
from, in case of the accounting year being a calendar year, January through
January an dividing the total by thirteen. If the firm’s accounting year is
other than a calendar year, say a financial year, (April and March), the
average level of inventory can be computed by adding the opening inventory of
each month from April through April and dividing the total by thirteen. This
approach has the advantage of being free from bias as it smoothens out the
fluctuations in inventory level at different periods. This is particularly true
of firms in seasonal industries. However, a serious limitation of this approach
is that detailed month-wise information may present practical problems of
collection for the analyst. Therefore, average inventory may be obtained by
using another basis, namely, the average of the opening inventory may be
obtained by using another basis, namely the average of the opening inventory
and the closing inventory.

Working Capital Turnover Ratio:

This ratio, should the
number of times the working capital results in sales. In other words, this
ratio indicates the efficiency or otherwise in the utilization of short tern
funds in making sales. Working capital means the excess of current over the
current liabilities. In fact, in the short run, it is the current liabilities
which play a major role. A careful handling of the short term assets and funds
will mean a reduction in the amount of capital employed, thereby improving
turnover. The following formula is used to measure this ratio:

Sales

Working capital turnover ratio = _____________________

Net
Working Capital

Fixed Assets Turnover Ratio:

As the organization
employs capital on fixed assets for the purpose of equipping itself with the
required manufacturing facilities to produce goods and services which are
saleable to the customers to earn revenue, it is necessary to measure the
degree of success achieved in this bearing. This ratio expresses the
relationship between cost of goods sold or sales and fixed assets. The
following is used for measurement of the ratio.

Fixed Assets Turnover  =
sales

________________

Net fixed assets

In computing fixed
assets turnover ratio, fixed assets are generally taken at written down value
at the end of the year. However, there is no rigidity about it. It may be taken
at the original cost or at the present market value depending on the object of
comparison. In fact, the ratio will have automatic improvement if the written
down value is used.

It would be better if
the ratio is worked out on the basis of the original cost of fixed assets. We
will take fixed assets at cost less depreciation while working this ratio.

Debt to Equity Ratio

The relationship
between borrowed funds and owner’s capital is a popular measure of the
long-term financial solvency of a firm. The relationship is shown by the
debt-equity ratios. This ratio reflects the relative claims of creditors and
shareholders against the assets of the firm. The relationship between
outsiders’ claims and owner’s capital can be shown in different ways and,
accordingly, there are many variants of the debt-equity ratio.

Total debt

Debt to Equity Ratio =
____________

Total
equity

The debt-equity
ratio is, thus, the ratio of total outside liabilities to owners’ total funds.
In other words, it is the ratio of the amount invested by the owners of

Comparative Balance sheet:

Comparative balance
sheets as on two or more different dates can be used for comparing assets,
liabilities, capital and finding out any increase or decrease in those items.
In the words of Foulke “comparative balance sheet analysis is the study of the
trend of the same items, group of items and computed items in two or more
balance sheets of the same business enterprise on different dates”. Such
analysis often yields valuable information as regards progress of business
concern. While the single balance sheet represent balances of accounts drawn at
the end of an accounting period, the comparative balance sheet represent not
nearly the balance of accounts drawn on two different dates, but also the
extent of their increase or decrease between these two dates. The single
balance sheet focuses on the financial status of the concern as on a particular
date, the comparative balance sheet focuses on the changes that have taken
place in one accounting period. The changes are the direct outcome of
operational activities, conversion of assets, liability and capital form into
others as well as a various interactions among assets, liability and capital.

Tips to improve your financial health.

Author:  Bill Hudley

Spend less money, or
save more money or do both. If the annual income does nothing more than remain
constant, your financial condition will improve.

The above statement may sound come
across as flippant, but it’s a fact of life, regardless. Needless to say we all
have different personalities and different responses to needs and desires in
life.

A very important yardstick, in my view,
is the growth rate of personal assets. If you sit down to all of the savings
accounts, investment accounts and properly values and the total value is
greater than the same time of the previous year, it stands to improve that the
financial health intact and possibly improved.

Steps to Improve Financial Performance

Author: Terry Peltes

Given the challenges
facing physicians, successful practices must take proactive steps to combat
negative trends and improve their overall financial performance.

To improve practice operations,
processes can be streamlined to reduce costs; productivity improvements can be
implemented by physicians and employees to increase revenue; a reporting
structure can be created that allows for better decision making by physicians
and employees; and a rewards system can be implemented to recognize
hard-working employees.

To determine how you can improve your
medical practice’s performance, consider the following management procedures.

1) Internal Cost Reduction Strategies

Cost
reduction strategies focus on reducing the internal costs generated by medical
services provided to the marketplace.

2) External Cost Reduction Strategies

These
strategies include the cost of services purchased from outside consultants or
vendors.

3) Asset and Credit Management
Strategies

These strategies
ensure that you are getting the most value from the resources invested in your
practice.

4) Personnel Resources

When
managed properly, personnel costs and productivity can have a substantial
impact on practice profitability.

5) Management Reporting

The
use of timely, relevant, properly formatted reports to manage your practice
cannot be overstated. This is a crucial link between setting financial and
operational goals and managing the practice to achieve them.

6) Revenue Enhancement

Physicians can improve
their financial performance by improving their ability to negotiate favorable
managed care contracts and reducing practice expenses as a percentage of
revenue.

Excellence in Financial Management

Author: Matt H. Evans

Ratio analysis can be
used to determine the time required to pay accounts payable invoices.
If the average number of days is close to the average credit terms, this may
indicate aggressive working capital management; i.e. using spontaneous sources
of financing. However, if the number of days is well beyond the average credit
terms, this could indicate difficulty in making payments to creditors.

Analyze Investments Quickly With Ratios

Author:
Jonas Elmerraji

The information you
need to calculate ratios is easy to come by: Every single number or figure you
need can be found in a company’s financial statements. Once you have the raw
data, you can plug in right into your financial analysis and put those numbers
to work for you.

Everyone wants an edge in investing but
one of the best tools out there frequently is frequently misunderstood and
avoided by new investors. When you understand what ratios tell you, as well as
where to find all the information you need to compute them, there’s no reason
why you shouldn’t be able to make the numbers work in your favor.

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