INTRODUCTION: district has an elevation between 300-600 meters


Agriculture is the prime of rural economy; it has to
play a crucial role of any development programme and plans for rural area
development. This sector contributes a large part to the income of people and
plays a very significant role in the economic development, providing capital
not own its development, but also generating surplus for development of
non-agriculture sectors. The economy is the study area is agrarian in nature,
therefore the industrial sector should be expanded to diversity it.

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There should be an exchange between the two key
sectors like agriculture and industry, the later supplying basic tools for
increasing agriculture output as well as large expensive market for the same.
On the other hand, agriculture supplies the row materials for industrial
production, and a variety of consumer goods to the agriculture people. The
vital significance of agriculture and allied sector has been emphasized
repeatedly by integrated rural development planers since these activities are
predominant parts of rural economy and fact provide a mean of livelihood for
the majority of the people.

About 72% population of the study area is associated
with agriculture and allied activities. The most important means of eking out
livelihood to the people is agriculture, since the other natural resource has
not been exploited fully and properly. The maximum portion of population
resides in the villages and their economic prosperity depends largely upon the
growth and development of agricultural. As such the need of agriculture
development in the district assumes greater significance. Before the proposal
of agricultural development plan, it is necessary to study the affecting
constituents of agriculture.


Una has been one of the smaller districts of
Himanchal Pradesh, which is located in the western part of the state along its
boundary with Panjab. Prior to reorganization of Panjab in 1966, UNA district
was part of Hosiarpur district ofPanjab.At Present it is bounded by district
Kangra in the north, district Hamirpur and Bilaspur in the east, district
Roopnagar of Punjab in the southeast and districts of Hoshiarpur and Nawanshahr
of Punjab in the west. The latitudinal and longitudinal extent of the districts
is from 310-17′-52″ to 310-52′-00″
north and 750- 58′- 02″ to760-28′-25″
east respectively. The total geographical area of the district is 1540 km2
which is about 2.8 % of the total area of the state. (Fig. 1) About two third
of the district has an elevation between 300-600 meters and the remaining about
one third between 600-900 meters from the sea level. (Fig. 2) A few ridge tops
and peaks  have also elevation more than
900 meters. River Soan and thenorth-western part of GovindSagar (From Bhakra
Dam to the north-western end of the reservoir) are the most prominent water
features of the district.


Administratively the district has been divided into
four tehsils Una, Amb, Haroli, and Bangana and Sub-tehsil Bharwain. There are
five community development blocks namely Una, Amb, Gagret, Bangana and Haroli.
The total population according to 2011 census is521173, in which 476260
population is rural and remaining urban. Una district has 335 Nay-Panchayat and
850 villages out of 790 inhabited.





The entire data used for the present study have been
studied on the basis of secondary data, collected from the office of four
tahsil and one sub- tahsil. The collected data analyzed both quantitative and
qualitatively method. Data from secondary sources have been collected
principally from various bulletins.

(1)      Bulletins
of Agriculture statistics of Himanchal Pradesh (year wise from 1990-91 to

(2)      Socio-
Economic review and district statistical abstract of Una District (year wise
from 1990-91 to 2010-2011).

(3)      District
Census hand book, Gazetteer agriculture epitomes, season and crop reports
published by the department of agriculture.



The main purpose of this study area is to evaluate
the factors affecting constituents of agricultural in the study area. The main
objective are:

(1)    To identify the different factors affecting
constituents of agricultural in the study area.

(2)    To study the interrelationship between factors
affecting constituents of agricultural in the study area.



The factors affecting constituents of agriculture like cultural
and demographic aspect have been taken into account, in the present study.


Among these factors, some are related to the social system of the
study area. The social system sets its imprints on land holding and field
system. In the oriental agrarian society like Una district, there are three
important sociological impediments, viz. (a) Fragmentation of holdings (b) Land
tenure system and (c) Size of operational holdings.


The fragmentation of holdings is one of
the problems of agri­cultural development. This practice of essential land
procession has resulted in the worst manner of all the evils of agriculture.
After the father dies, his land is distributed amongst the sons. This
distribution of land does not entail a collection or consolidated one, but its
nature is frag­mented. This is due to the fact that land tracts ranges in
fertility. If there are five tracts which are to be distributed amongst the
sons, all of them will get smaller part of each land tract, and in this way the
inheritance of land goes on and with the fragmenta­tion of land holdings become
more and more acute. The impor­tant cause of the low productivity of land is to
be found in the excessive sub-division and fragmentation of holdings in several
parts of the district. The sub-division and fragmentation are fur­ther
associated by factor like the rapid increase of population and to the law of
inheritance and succession amongst the fami­lies. The sub-division and
fragmentation have made cultivation more costly. The practice is very wasteful,
in the sense that the farmer cannot concentrate all his attention and energies
at one particular place. According to Turner (1931), the disadvantag­es are
obvious, the nearer fields are apt to be over worked and the remote ones
neglected. It involves waste of labour in mov­ing, implements, cattle and water
to distance, waste of land in providing boundaries and waste of time in going
to and fro be­tween the fields. It facilities damage by theft and cattle
trespass, makes the use of labour saving difficult, and it restraints cultiva­tors
from attempting improvements. There is no possibility of irrigation in such
fragmented holdings. No preventive measures can be taken against the pests and
locust menace.


The secured, land tenure is the heart of agricultural efficiency.
Unless the ac­tual cultivators of land have the incentive to raise the yield,
the agricultural output cannot be raised and proper utilization of land can
hardly be realized. Often the land owners’ mortgage the piece of their fields
to be money Landers at some cost and gives the right of tilling to the
mortgagee till return his money. This is a bad system of tenure in which the
soil fertility is reduced continuously. The mortgagee generally produces crops
without supplying proper nutrition to soil. The second system of tenure is crop
share system. The owners poor and without means, have no agriculture facilities
like bullock and plough implements etc. give their land to the share croppers
on share basis i.e. half or one third part of the produced crops. Since this is
oral and the period fully depends on the owner’s pleasure, therefore, the share
croppers are not at all concerned towards putting any special efforts for
increasing the output of such fields. The third system is owner cultivation
which being the commonest, is strongly established in the area. The owners
cultivate the land with the help of their family members.



The smallness of the
holdings, occupied by cultivators, consti­tutes a limit to the possibility of
improvement. There are differ­ent sizes of farms in the district, most of them
being very small i.e. up to 1to 2 hectares.


There are 62710 operational holdings in district with aggregate
area of 80,285 hectares, according to the agriculture census 2010-2011 (Table
1). The increase in the number of operational holdings is mainly due to the
increase in population, resulting division of families and holdings.



Table; 1 Number and Area of Operational Holdings in District in Una
District (2010-11)

S. No.

Size of
Holdings (Hectares)




 Below 1.00(Marginal)
















hec. & Above (Large)







Source: Agricultural
Census of Himachal Pradesh 2010-2011


Table 1 & (fig-3) manifests that large number of cultivators
cultivates land in units of less than 1 hectare (64.76 % of the total hold­ings).
The problem therefore is not so much of uneconomic cultivation as that of
uneconomic cultivators. The table (1) & (Fig.3) also displays that 82.95%
of the holders’ posses land smaller area less than 2 hectares. The fact of
situation, however, is that most of these cultivators have no option but to
keep on cultivating small piece of land. In spite of the disproportionate
labour and cost that is required to operate a small farm, the land is definite
source of employment and means of livelihood to the cultiva­tor. As long as the
income on land is in cereals that they daily consume, however, insufficient
that income may be, the cultivators are not prepared to relinquish the same and
carry out cultivation in the absence of any other secure employment. All the
cultivators, therefore, search for one job or the other that would take out
their income from land. At times, a cultivator earns more from his subsidiary
occupation than from his land.









The efficient use of land depends as much upon the capacity of the
man who uses it as upon the relationship between the land and individual i.e.
man land ratio. The people till the land and grow the crops to full-fill their
needs. Man is important in this context as an agent, the operator of the farm
and other such units, who normally maximizes production. Pearson & Harper
(1945) relate the man with soil as he gets nearly all of his food stuffs from
the soil and less than one percent of what he eats be­ing fish. Therefore the
land is modified by man with increasing impact of science and technology.


The term non-farm workers have been used for such a class of
labour who provide services for the farm workers and hence can be considered as
a part of the occupied royalties. According to 2001 and 2011 census, the person
engaged in farming prac­tices are 78.21 % and 75.45% to the total workers,
respectively in rural area of the district.



(b)       FARM WORKERS:

In The Una district, a very large percentage of farmers are
working on uneconomic holdings. The size of farm is so small that there is
hardly sufficient work for the farmer and his family to keep engaged throughout
the year. The bulk of the population is agricultural and agriculture here means
ordinarily the grow­ing, harvesting and disposal of two crops in the year.


Agriculture continues to play a significant role in the economic
and social development of any region. It holds the key to na­tional
development, as the overwhelming majority ‘classified as rural’, is intimately
associated with and is primary based on agriculture and allied activities. In
this context different sugges­tions have been given:

The physical and cultural constituents of agriculture develop­ment
are most formidable. The climate, soil and topography are the most important
physical constituents, which influence the agriculture development. As such the
importance of soil conser­vation need to highlighted in the area with a large
scale planta­tion, bench terraces, augmented fertility of soils etc.

The cultural constituents like bad tenure system and fragment­ed
of holdings should also be removed. The size of operational holdings is the
other constituents which are becoming smaller and smaller due to ‘inheritance
division’ by the law of succes­sion. The only solution of fragmentation of
holdings is the consolidation of holdings.


72% population of the district is
engaged in agriculture activi­ties. There are three important sociological
impediments, viz. (a) Fragmentation of holdings (b) Land tenure system and (c)
Size of operational holdings. Land tenure system is also major problem in study
area. There are 62710
operational holdings in district with aggregate area of 80285hectares. Large num­ber of cultivators cultivates land in
units of less than 1 hectare 64.76 % of the holders’ posses land smaller area
less than 2 hectares. Person engaged in farming practices are 78.21 % and
75.45% to the total workers. Therefore, the conclusion is that farming in the
study area is neither a profession, nor a busi­ness nor an industry, but it is
just way of life.


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