Introduction 2012). (MORE STATS) For a large proportion


Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental health
disorders experienced by children and young people, with an estimated
prevalence of 6.5% (Cooper, 2017).  The
cumulative prevalence of anxiety disorders in children alone are around 10% by
the age of 16 (Austin, 2012). (MORE STATS) For a large proportion of children, anxiety
problems are long lasting and usually interfere with their development and
functioning (Austin, 2012). It can affect their day to day life with affects in
their academics, self-esteem, and social interactions ( ). If left untreated it
can often lead into adulthood and can also present risks for other mental
health problems (Cooper, 2017). Anxiety can be such a prevalent problem among
young people today that there are many community mental health resources that
one can turn to in the GTA. CAMH is one of the most
respectable resources that young people have access to. ( ) Not only does it have excellent information about mental health
for clients and families, but it also provides clients with excellent and outstanding
programs and services (CAMH, n.d). CAMH provides great in-patient and
out-patient programs for people with mental disorders (CAMH, n.d). The programs that CAMH provides can help young adults deal with
major depression, bipolar disorder (manic depressive illness), anxiety
disorders and obsessive compulsive disorder (CAMH, n.d.). The program itself is
divided into six specialty clinics which provide clinical care, education
and research (CAMH, n.d.). The program offers consultations; time limited
treatments and follow-up, education and services for families (CAMH,
n.d.). Also, CAMH provides group therapies for clients so that they do
not feel alone, as well as individual therapies for a more one on one
experience (CAMH, n.d.).  Among the many therapies that CAMH provides the three main therapies are
cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), interpersonal treatment (IPT) and
psychoeducation. Furthermore, in this paper I will discuss the three main
treatments that CAMH provides and further explore the treatments of CBT, IPT,
and psychoeducation with research.

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Background (1- 1.5 PAGES)

the reader with evidence about the topic 
ie stats, sources that reflect the position you are taking

section should encourage the reader to see the importance of the thesis
statement and purpose of the paper.


There is a range of disorders that anxiety can fall under. Generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, panic
disorder, and major depressive disorder are to just to name a few.

Anxiety is a normal part of life that everyone, everywhere,
experiences at some point in their lives. Children, adolescents, and adults can
all experience it. For some, it can cause disturbances in their social lives,
home functioning and can even disturb work life and everyday routine ( ). Psychotherapy
for anxiety is the alleviation of symptoms of diagnosed anxiety disorders or
elevated anxiety levels (Austin, 2012).








3 Main Headings (4-6 PAGES)

The concept behind CBT is that our thoughts affect how we
feel emotionally and physically and how we behave in a situation (2007). The
most frequently used psychological treatment for anxiety disorders in children and
young people is Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) ( ).  CBT is used for a mixed anxiety disorders, including
generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and separation anxiety
disorder (Cooper, 2017). It has consistently been concluded that CBT shows clear
benefit over a rate of 59.4% (Cooper, 2017). In CBT, clients learn to identify,
question and change their attitudes, thoughts and beliefs related to the
emotional and behavioral reactions that cause their problems (CAMH, n.d.).

In CBT therapy such things such as
depression and anxiety can be managed by monitoring and recording thoughts
during upsetting or stressful situations, with this people can learn that how
they think can contribute to emotional problems (CAMH, n.d.).

 By monitoring and recording thoughts during
upsetting situations, people learn that how they think can contribute to
emotional problems such as depression and anxiety. CBT helps to reduce these
emotional problems by teaching clients to identify distortions in their
thinking, see thoughts as ideas about what is going on, rather than as facts,
and stand back from their thinking to consider situations from different
viewpoints (CAMH, n.d).

It is important to point out that treatments for children and
adults have differences in part to the specific developmental needs (Austin,
2012).The most obvious point is that children and adolescents are less cognitively
mature than adults (Austin, 2012). Which has obvious consequences (Austin,
2012).  First there’re is a debate about
the extent to which cognitive maturity is required for successful engagement in
cognitive behavioural treatment (Austin, 2012). It is said that cognitively
based interventions cannot be used because children lack the cognitive maturity
to participate (Austin, 2012). And the response to these concerns is to instead
of focusing on the cognitive part of it, it is important to instead focus on behavioural
side of treatment (Austin, 2012). Other clinicians argue that child’s cognitive
development is more flexible, and that with adequate adaptations and support
many young children can exhibit the ability to engage in the cognitive elements
of cognitive behavioral treatment (Austin, 2012).

Cognitive-behavioral therapy, with research has
been showed to be one of the most rapid among therapies in terms of results obtained
(What is Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), 2016). A client receives from 10-20 sessions (What
is Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), 2016).  What enables CBT to be shorter is its high instructive process
and the fact that there is usually homework that is assigned at the end of the
therapy.  CBT is time-limited in that we help clients understand at the
very beginning of the therapy process that there will be a point when the
formal therapy will end (What is Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT),

A strong therapeutic
relationship is necessary for effective therapy, but it is not the main focus. (What is Cognitive-Behavioral
Therapy (CBT), 2016).  Some therapies assume that the reason clients
show improvement in side effects is because of the positive relationship
between the client and therapist. Though this is true, Cognitive- behavioral
therapists believe it is important to trust and have a positive relationship
between the client and the therapist (What is Cognitive-Behavioral
Therapy (CBT), 2016).  CBT therapists believe that the
clients change because they learn how to think differently and they act on that
learning (What is Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), 2016). Therefore, CBT therapists focus on
teaching rational self-counseling skills ((What is Cognitive-Behavioral
Therapy (CBT), 2016).  )

The therapist’s role is to listen, teach, and encourage,
while the client’s roles is to express concerns, learn, and implement that
learning (What is Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
(CBT), 2016). 

therapy that is used at CAMH is Interpersonal Treatment (IPT) which includes
mood monitoring and stabilization, symptom identification, and management,
challenging negative thought processes, increasing adaptive coping,
interpersonal communication, and relapse prevention (CAMH, n.d).  Interpersonal Therapy is an attachment-based
and problem-focuses treatment for anxiety, depression and relationship problems (CAMH, n.d).  In this approach, the focus of therapy is on
current relationships and things that contribute
to the onset of depression or other symptoms of psychological distress (CAMH, n.d).  IPT helps you in understand life changes, building new
relationship skills and reducing stress through understanding and improving
relationships at work, home and in your social life (CAMH, n.d).   


psychoeducation is a very simple, inexpensive and effective intervention that
can vary from handing out materials such as leaflets, brochures, numbers to
other facilities, information websites to more active multi-session group
interventions with a therapist’s guidance and exercises.

therapy is based on the understanding that: 1) we live in a social world, 2)
relationships are fundamental to our well-being, and 3) depression typically
occurs in the context of relationship problems or chronic relationship stress.

all face problems in our relationships (whether intimate, social, family,
and/or work-related) and adapting to new social roles or interpersonal events
at some point in our lives (e.g., beginning university, moving, job change or
loss, having a baby). When we experience significant stress in these areas, do
not get our basic emotional needs met, and/or lack sufficient social support
during times of conflict, transition, or loss, we are more vulnerable to
depression and other symptoms of distress.

aims to help you feel better by working collaboratively with you to resolve the
social and relationship problems that are contributing to symptoms of
depression and general distress. There is a strong emphasis on helping you
develop awareness and make changes in your interpersonal behaviors (that is,
how you relate to and communicate with others) in order to resolve current
IPT was originally developed to treat major
depressive disorder. It’s also used effectively to treat eating disorders,
perinatal depression, drug and alcohol addiction, dysthymia, and other mood disorders—including bipolar
disorder. IPT differs from other
traditional psychodynamic approaches in that it examines current rather than past
relationships, and recognizes—but does not focus on—internal conflicts. The
practice differs from cognitive
and behavioral therapy approaches because it
addresses maladaptive thoughts and behaviors only as they apply to
interpersonal relationships. IPT aims to change relationship patterns rather
than the associated depressive symptoms, as well as target relationship
difficulties that exacerbate these symptoms. IPT is less directive than cognitive
behavioral approaches—focusing on the patient’s specified target areas
without dwelling on his or her personality traits.

refers to the process of providing education and information to those seeking or
receiving mental health services,
such as people diagnosed with mental health conditions (or
life-threatening/terminal illnesses) and their family members.

The goal of psychoeducation is to help people better understand
(and become accustomed to living with) mental health conditions, is considered
to be an essential aspect of all therapy programs.
It is generally known that those who have a thorough understanding of
the challenges they are facing as well as knowledge of personal coping ability,
internal and external resources, and their own areas of strength are often
better able to address difficulties, feel more in control of the condition(s),
and have a greater internal capacity to work toward mental and emotional well-being. One study showed psychoeducation, when administered
to those with schizophrenia, helped to both reduce rehospitalization
rates and decrease the number of days a person spends in the hospital.
This education is also a component of most trauma therapies.

Many individuals who have a mental health condition know
little or nothing about the condition they have been diagnosed with, what they
might expect from therapy, or the positive and negative effects of any medications they
may be prescribed. Literature on these topics given to them by medical
professionals may be confusing or otherwise difficult to comprehend and thus of
little help.

Offered in both individual and group formats,
psychoeducation can benefit the individual diagnosed, parents and other family
members, and caregivers and friends. It is not an approach to treatment in
itself but represents an important early step in treatment, as it offers those
individuals involved in a person’s care information on both how to offer
support and how to maintain their own emotional health and overall well-being
and provides them with the opportunity to develop a thorough understanding of
the mental health concern(s) affecting their loved one. Participating in psychoeducation
may have a positive impact on quality of life.


Psychoeducation may be general or highly
specified and can be provided in a number of ways, though it is broadly steered
by four main goals: transfer of information, medication and treatment support,
training and support in self-help and self-care, and the provision of a safe place to vent
emotional frustrations. All of the following may constitute psychoeducation: A
therapist explaining to a person in therapy the ways a mental health
condition might impact function

A psychiatrist
describing how a prescribed medication can counteract symptoms of a mental
health condition, a psychiatric hospital providing support and education to family
members of
those receiving treatment, formal classes designed to educate the population about
both specific mental health conditions and mental health in general, classroom
behavior management assistance for students
diagnosed with behavioral concerns, self-help and support groups designed to
encourage those diagnosed with mental health concerns to share strategies and
information with one another.

people might receive psychoeducation through online or electronic formats such
as DVDs, CDs, or other audiovisual materials, though others may choose to
participate in sessions with a mental health professional.


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