INTERNET current state of IoT research by examining





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Student of MCA,

Sri Sarada College for
Women, Tirunelveli

E-mail:[email protected]

Phone no: 7402548493



Student of MCA,

Sri Sarada College for
Women, Tirunelveli

E-mail:[email protected]

Phone no: 9944697502


The concept of Internet of Things is at where everyday objects
can be able to identifying, sensing, networking and processing capabilities
that will allow them to communicate with one another and their services over
the Internet to complete some objective. The objective of this research is to
report on the current state of IoT research by examining the literature,
identifying current trends. IoT is still in a theoretical state and the field
is very dynamic at this point, reviewing only journal articles that make a
specific theoretical contribution to the IoT would give up a very limited
review. The literature was classified according to its content into the
following major categories which are technology, applications, challenges,
business models, future directions and overview/survey. The domain of the
application areas for the IoT is limited only by imagination at this point. The
applications which are sub-classified into some of the domains such as smart
infrastructure, healthcare, supply chains/logistics, and social applications.
One of the possible application of IoT in a social context which is an
interaction of IoT devices with existing social networking services such as
Face book or Twitter. Using IoT devices to provide information about an
individual’s activities and location that can save their user time. Challenges
must be overcome in order to ensure IoT implementation and diffusion.
Challenges were sub-classify into Security, Privacy, Legal/ Accountability and
General. The IoT will certainly drive the development of new business models
that capitalize on its occurrence and ubiquity. The Web of Things proposes the
use of web standards to fully integrate smart objects into the World Wide Web.
A large number of papers provided overviews of the IoT with varying degrees of
depth and coverage. These general papers were classified as overview/survey
papers. the geographic hotspots for academic research in IoT due to issues such
as co-authorship, international journals, foreign graduate students, visiting
professors, multiple funding sources and other confounding factors. The IoT
holds the promise of improving people’s lives through both automation and
augmentation. The IoT builds on existing technologies such as RFID and Wireless
Sensor Networks along with standards and protocols to support machine-to-machine
communication such as those envisioned for the semantic web.



of Things, Technology, Applications, Communication, Sensor.




connects all people – “Internet of People”

connects all things – “Internet of Things”

The Internet of Things which means Interconnection of things or
Objects or Machines, which are interact with each other via Internet. Eg:
Sensors, mobile phones, electronic devices, Home appliances…The Internet is
one of the most important and powerful creations in all of human history and
an  internet becomes more encouraging to
have a smart life in every aspects. IoT, sometimes it referred to as the
Internet of Object. The Internet has an effect on education, communication,
business, science, government, and humanity. IoT is a new technology of
accessing an Internet. IoT, the core concept is
that everyday objects can be equipped with identifying, sensing, networking and
processing capabilities that will allow them to communicate with one another
and with other devices and services over the Internet to achieve some useful

the Internet of Things, objects recognize themselves and obtain intelligence performance
by making or enabling related decisions thinks to the fact that they can communicate
information about themselves. These objects can access information that has
been aggregated by other things, or they can add to other services. It will provide
many services such as notifications, security, energy saving, automation,
communication, computers and entertainment. By developing the IoT technology,
testing and deploying products it will be much close to implementing smart
environments by 2020.  In the near
future, storage and communication services will be highly pervasive and distributed:
people, machines, smart objects, surrounding space
platforms connected with wireless/wired sensors, M2M devices.   IoT is
a generic term and all objects can play an active role to their connection to
the Internet by creating smart environments, where the role of the Internet has
changed. The internet of things, anything’s will able to communicate to the
internet at any time from any place to provide any services by any network to



Internet of things promises many applications in human
life, making their life easier, safe and smart. There are many applications
such as smart cities, homes, transportation, and grid.


2.1. Smart Cities:

Smart cities may be viewed as cities of the future and
smart life, and by the improvement rate of creating smart cities today’s, it
will became possible to enter the IoT technology in cities to development.
Smart cities demand require by careful planning in every stage, with their support
of agreement from governments, and general public to implement the internet of
things technology in every aspects. By using IoT the cities are improving an infrastructure,
public transportation as reducing
traffic congestion, and keeping citizens safe, and healthy. By connection of all
systems in the cities like transportation system, healthcare system, weather
monitoring systems and etc., to support people by the internet in every place
to accessing the database of airports, railways, transportation tracking
operating under specified protocols, cities will become smarter by internet of




 2.2. Smart Home and Buildings:

Homes and buildings may operate many devices and
objects as a smartly.  The most interesting
application of IoT is smart homes and buildings are smart lighting, smart
environmental and media, air control and central heating, energy management and
security. Wireless
sensor networks (WSNs) with integration to the internet of things technology
will provide an intelligent energy management in buildings, and environmental
gains. Internet together with energy management systems also offers an opportunity
to access a buildings energy information and control systems from a laptop or a
Smartphone placed anywhere in the world. The future Internet of Things will
provide intelligent building management systems which can be considered as a
part of a much larger information system used by facilities managers in
buildings to manage energy use and energy procurement and to maintain buildings




2.3. Smart Grid:

          Smart Grid is a promising
solution for minimizing the storage of electrical energy and to solve the
problems of traditional power grids. The possible advances in smart grid are
efficiency, effectiveness, reliability, security, stability and increasing
demand of electrical energy. The attributes of Smart Grid are self-healing.
Improve electrical quality, distributed generation and demand response, common
operation and user participants and effective asset management. The four
sub-systems in SG completely transform the Energy generation, transmission,
distributed and consumption. It comprised of three types of Network, they are

Home Area Network (HAN) – is the first layer of SG, it manages the consumer
demand on power requirements such as home appliances, electrical devices as
well as renewable energy sources.

Neighbourhood Area Network (NAN) – is the second layer of SG, which is also
called as a Field Area Network (FAN). NAN supports the communication between
distribution substations and field electrical devices for power distribution

Wide Area Network (WAN) – is the third layer of SG, it serves as a communication
between network gateway or aggregation points. The communication among power
transmission systems, bulk generation systems, renewable energy sources and
control centers.


2.4. Smart
Transportation and Mobility:

A road condition is monitoring and alert application
is one of the most important of IoT is a transformation application. The main
idea of this concept is to apply the principles of crowd sourcing and sensing.
The process began with user identified the route wishes and marked some points
as hole in the smart phone’s application. Government in many countries has supported researches on
systems to monitor performance of Lithium-ion (Li-on) battery for electric
vehicle as explored.





The Internet of Things (IoT) will provide a technology
to creating the means of smart action for machines to communicate with one
another and with many different types of information. The success of IoT
depends on consistency, which provides interoperability, compatibility,
reliability, and effective operations on a global scale. Today more than 60 companies
for leading technology in communications and energy, working with standards,
such as IETF, IEEE and ITU to
specify new IP based technologies for the Internet of Things.  

The main focus of the IEEE standardization activities
are on the Physical and MAC layer. The IEEE provides an early foundation for
the IoT with the IEEE802.15.4 standard for short range low power radios,
typically operating in the industrial, scientific and medical band in addition
to use ZigBee technology.

Engineering Task Force (IETF) is troubled with the evolution of the Internet
architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet and known as large, open
to international community of network designers, operators, vendors and
researchers. IETF provides its own description of IoT which provides a most familiar
enhancement to support IPv6, with the 6LoWPAN.

ITU’s Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T)
considered as a first organization of standards development and coordination of
the Internet of Things



Technology is the most important method in IoT.


4.1.  Technology:

Any information system, the IoT will rely on a combination of hardware, software and architectures.
Although many of the articles reviewed contained references to the
technological components that support the IoT, only the articles that focused
specifically on technology were placed in this category.



Hardware infrastructure includes: RFID, NFC and Sensor Networks.

Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) is a short range communication technology where an RFID tag
communicates with an RFID reader via radio-frequency electromagnetic fields.

Near Field Communication (NFC) is a new technology that
builds on the RFID standard. NFC is a short-range communication standard where
devices are able to engage in radio communication with one another when touched
together or brought into close proximity to one another. Each NFC tag contains
a Unique Identification (UID) that is associated with the tag.

             Sensor networks: Sensor is a device that observes
characteristics of the environment or other objects such as temperature,
humidity, movement, and quantity. When multiple sensors are used together and
interact, which are referred to as a wireless
sensor network (WSN).



New software must be written to support the interoperability
between numerous heterogeneous devices and searching the data generated by
them. IoT middleware helps bring together a multitude of devices and data in a
way that enables developers to create and deploy new IoT services without
having to write different code for each kind of device or data format. Many
researchers have proposed the use of semantic middleware to interoperate the
different classes of devices communicating through different communication


4.1.3.      Architecture:

Architectures are needed to represent, organize and structure
the IoT in a way that enables it to function effectively. In particular, the
distributed, heterogeneous nature of the IoT requires the application of
hardware/network, software, and process architectures are capable of supporting
these devices, their services, and the work flows they will affect. Architecture
is further classified into, hardware/network, software, process. architecture:

 A number of hardware/ network
architectures have been proposed to support the distributed computing
environments required by the IoT. These architectures include peer-to-peer, EPC
global, and autonomic. The varying architectures that may be used to support
the IoT also highlight the importance of the issue of standardization. Software architecture:

Software architecture is necessary to provide access to and
enable the sharing of services offered by IoT devices. In particular, service
oriented architectures (SOA) and the representational state transfer (REST)
model are frequently proposed for IoT use due to their focus on services and flexibility. Process

The IoT will certainly affect business processes. Process
architectures are necessary to effectively structure the business processes
that will incorporate the IoT .In particular; researchers have looked at how to
structure workflows to support the pervasive computing environments.



IoT Trends to watch in the Future:

1)       IT
Services (Business Consulting)-Major Driver.

2)       IoT
drives demand for DATA ANALYTICS:

3)           Data must be managed, integrated and

4)       IoT
drives demand on Cloud Computing

5)       IoT
generated data is bought analyzed and sold.

Eg: IBM buys the weather company data

6)       Interoperability



6.      Internet
of Things Challenges:

The expectation of IoT that the technology must be
available at low cost with a large number of objects. IoT are having many
challenges, such as:


6.1. Scalability: Internet of
Things has a big concept than the conventional Internet of computers, because
of things are cooperated within an open environment. The functionality such as
communication and service finding there need to function equally efficiently in
both small scale and large scale environments. The IoT requires a new functions
and methods to gain an efficient operation for scalability.

6.2. Data
volumes: Some application scenarios of the internet of things
will involve to irregular communication, and gathering information’s form
sensor networks, or form logistics and large scale networks, will collect a
huge volumes of data on central network nodes or servers.

Interoperability: Each type of smart objects in Internet of Things has
different information, processing and communication capabilities. Different
smart objects would also be subjected to different conditions such as the
energy availability and the communications bandwidth requirements. To
facilitate communication and cooperation of these objects, common standards are

6.4. Automatic Discovery: In dynamic environments, suitable services for things
must be automatically identified, which requires appropriate semantic means of
describing their functionality.

6.5. Software complexity: A more extensive software infrastructure will be
needed on the network and on background servers in order to manage the smart
objects and provide services to support them, because the software systems in
smart objects will have to function with minimal resources, as in conventional
embedded systems.

6.6. Security and privacy: In addition to the security and
protection aspects of the Internet such in communications confidentiality, the
authenticity and trustworthiness of communication partners, and message integrity,
other requirements would also be important in an Internet of Things.

6.7. Wireless communications: From an energy point of view, established wireless
technologies such as GSM, UMTS, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth are far less suitable; more
recent WPAN standards such as ZigBee and others still under development may
have a narrower bandwidth, but they do use significantly less power.


Trends of Internet of Things:


7.1. Digital Twin

A Key tool to improve operations with digital data is the
Digital Twin. Digital Twins are a huge next step in the world of IoT. In software
everywhere world, Digital Twin technology will help Organizations Bridge the
divide between the physical and digital. The digital twin serves as a looking
glass into what’s happening within physical assets. They also give insight into
changes required for the future. Unfortunately, the digital twin accelerates
the product development timeline at reduced costs. The digital twin empowers
organizations to shift to an operations- centric view.

7.2.  Block Chain:

            Block chain play a
major role by enhancing security, making transactions more seamless and
creating efficiencies in the supply chain.

There are three key
ways in Block chain.

7.2.1. Build Trust:

Block chain can help build trust between the people and parties
that transact together. While person A may not know device B and may not trust
it implicitly, the indelible record of transactions and data from devices
stored on the block chain provide proof and command necessary trust for
business and people to cooperate.

7.2.2. Reduce Costs:

                IoT and block chain enable
participants to reduce monetary and time commitment costs by ultimately
removing the “Middle man” from the process.

7.2.3. Accelerate Transactions:

chain for IoT can transform the way business transactions are conducted
globally by providing a trustworthy environment. These transactions are
automated and encoded while enterprise level privacy is preserved.



7.3. Security

participants in the IoT ecosystem are responsible for the security of the
devices, data and solutions. This means that device manufactures application
developers, consumers, and operators. IoT security requires a multi-layered


7.4. SaaS

IoT implementations still require implementations. But in 2018, there will be
more instances where software as a service (SaaS) is a viable option. Next
year, if believe we’ll see more companies choose the SaaS approach to quickly
create and prove out a variety of IoT scenarios at lower investment levels.


7.5. Cognitive

                Last but not Least, Cognitive
Computing. The Internet of Things is at the threshold of a tremendous
opportunity. For over a decade we’ve connected things with unique IP addresses.
But the commoditizations of sensors, processors and memory now make it possible
to makes everyday things more than just connected.



Internet of things is a new technology
which provides many applications to connect the things to things and human to
things through the internet. Each object in the world can be identified,
connected to each other through internet taking decisions independently. IoT
requires standardized approach for architectures, identification schemes,
protocols and frequencies will happen parallels, each one targeted for a
particular and specific use. by the internet of things many smart applications
becomes real in our life , which enable us to reach and contact with every
things in addition to facilities many important aspects for human life such as
smart healthcare, smart homes, smart energy , smart cities and smart
environments. This paper surveyed some of the most important applications of
IoT with particular focus on what is being actually done in addition to the
challenges that facing the implementation the internet of things concept, and
the other future technologies make the concept of IoT feasible. This article reported on the current state of IoT
research by examining the literature, identifying current trends, describing challenges
that threaten IoT diffusion, presenting open research questions and future
directions, and compiling a comprehensive reference list to assist researchers.
The IoT builds on existing technologies such as RFID and Wireless Sensor Networks
along with standards and protocols to support machine-to-machine communication
such as those envisioned for the semantic web.


Future Enhancements:


One of the future visions
for the IoT is the Web of Things. The Web of Things which proposes the use of
web standards to fully integrate smart objects into the World Wide Web. Using
web technologies can make it easy for developers to build an application using
smart objects and existing web protocols can more easily enable the
interoperability and communication of different devices.  Another future vision that involves
integrating even more devices into the IoT is the Internet of Nano-Things.



The Internet of
Nano-Things can be described as the interconnection of nanoscale devices with
communication networks and the Internet. While these devices are proposed to
communicate through electromagnetic communication, there are numerous technical
challenges that must be overcome before the idea becomes possible


10.  References:


Internet of Things
for Smart Cities, Andrea Zanella, Senior Member, IEEE, Nicola Bui, Angelo
Castellani, Lorenzo Vangelista, Senior Member, IEEE, and Michele Zorzi, Fellow,

The Internet of
Things-A Survey of Topics and Trends, Andrew Whitmore-Anurag Agarwal-Li Da Xu



6.       Internet
of Things Applications, challenges and Related Future Technologies, Zeinab
Kamal Aldein Mohammed, Elmustafa Sayed Ali Ahmed, Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Department, Red Sea University, Sudan.

7.       Internet
of Things: Trends, Directions, Opportunities, Challenges, I.F.Akyildiz, Ken
Byers Chair Professor in Telecommunications, Georia Institute of Technology
school of Electrical and Computer Engineering BWN(Broadband Wireless
Networking) Lab,

8.       Internet
of Things-aided Smart Grid: Technologies, Architectures, Applications, Prototypes,
and Future Research Directions, Yasir Saleem, Student Member, IEEE, Noel Crespi,
Senior Member, IEEE, Mubashir Husain Rehmani, Senior Member, IEEE and Rebecca


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