In the readers question their own assumptions of

In the assigned readings for the class, many of the
authors make and explain their own arguments regarding about social change and
how one can initiate it to occur. In Audre Lorde book, “Sister Outsider,” she states
throughout the chapters that in order for social change to happen one must
first use individuals’ social differences as an instrument for action and
change. In a chapter titled “The Master’s Tools Will Never Dismantle the Master’s
House,” she speaks about how feminists are focusing only on white women and
excluding women of color and different ethnicity. This brings up similarities between white feminists and
the patriarchy as they are using the same tactics to oppress women who are
different compare to them or identity with a minority group like blacks and
lesbians. Lorde, in a previous chapter, acknowledges that differences are used
as an old strategy of domination to divide groups. She remarks, saying, “As a
tool of social control, women have been encouraged to recognize only one area
of human difference as legitimate, those differences which exist between women
and men.” (122). In the Master’s Tools,
Lorde states that by ignoring differences would only mean to copy a system of
power and oppression which many white feminists claim to be fighting against. She
writes: “For the master’s tools will never dismantle the master’s house. They
may allow us temporarily to beat him at his own game, but they will never enable
us to bring genuine change.” (112). Which explains that using these tactics
will not lead to liberation or social change. Instead everyone’s voices should
be included and the differences among us should be welcome as one must learn
“…how to take our differences and make them strengths.” (112). By this, these
differences will become the foundation for creativity and power, while also
serve as the reason or key to the survival and future of the women’s movement.

            In Jean Halley’s book “Seeing Straight:
An Introduction to Gender and Sexual Privilege,” the author tries and succeeds
in making the readers question their own assumptions of gender and sexuality. Throughout
the book, readers are made to observe the privilege inherent by classifying
certain categories such as heterosexual and cisgender as normal, while other categories are place under the label of being abnormal like queer gender and
sexuality. This book, from what I gathered, pushes on the idea that social
change can be accomplished when individuals begin to dismantle/challenge social
institutions. In chapter two, in a section titled Social Norms and Institutions, the author writes: “Social power,
rules, and practices of institutions change over time in response to social
movements and historical changes.” (34). Meaning, that due to circumstances
like movements, things that were once regards as being deviant, abnormal or
just wrong in nature can change as our cultures and ways of thinking changes
and, eventually, become socially accepted. Halley offers a scenario to the
readers about a situation in which a senior in high school wants to bring her
girlfriend to prom and how due to this, she might face being “… banned from attendance
by social administrators…” (34). In chapter eight, in a section called Queer Hope, Queer Courage, the author
remarks again about the prom situation and replies that as off 2015, a high
school has picked two boys to be prom king and queen. Showing the positive
social change that has occurred due to recent events.

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            Arlie Hochschild book, The Second Shift, focus on a subject in which she calls
the “second shift” which is the work a woman does at home such as housework and
childcare after her paid job. She remarks this term or second shift essentially
or roughly adds one more month in the year for women. With a desire to
understand more about the wife’s extra month and how it effects both the
husband and wife, she interview around fifty couples and observed them in over
a dozen homes. From this study, Hochschild concluded that in these families,
the household and parenting duties are not shared equally but rather it is
instead pushed on the women or wife. Even though she now involved in the workforce
just like her husband; she is still expected to keep up with the same responsibilities
she used to do in the home when she was not out in the workforce. Due to this
double stress placed on these women shoulders, it can be said, that because of
this, she is unable to perform as successful as she would in her career. Due to
this, Hochschild remarks – in chapter two – that marriage is a “…magnet for
strains of the stalled revolution.” (18). In
simple words, the stalled revolution is when certain advancements in gender
equality have been done in the workplace, however, there were no advancements
done in the home. From
this book, it’s clear that social change can only occur if the playing field
between both women and men are leveled or equal. This can be done by increasing
wages for women and providing both longer maternity leave and guaranteed paid
paternal leave for father to bond with their children. By doing some of these
suggestions, equality can be achieved in the workforce and the household.









Halley, J., & Eshleman, A.
(2017). Seeing Straight: An Introduction
to Gender and Sexual Privilege. Rowman & Littlefield.

A. R., & Machung, A. (2003). The second shift. New York: Penguin Books.

Audre. (1984). Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches. Trumansburg, NY: Crossing


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