In (). Migrants arriving by sea in 2015,

In this essay, I will discuss the causes of immigration crisis in Europe and what European member countries are doing to tackle the crisis. In the past, there were several migrant crises such as the ones in the fall of the iron curtain and WWII. Most recently, the emerge of war between Russia and Ukraine, forcing 2.5 million of Ukrainian to leave their homes. Despite Europe had a migrant crisis in the past, it could be predicted, prepared for, and its consequences when another crisis occurs, following its historical lessons. However, the 2015 crisis, has come as a surprise.The European immigration crisis has been an ongoing issue since 2015, due to a rising number of people arriving in Europe, mostly from Muslim-majority countries from the south and east Europe, Africa and South Asia. Most migrants were from Iraqi, Afghan and Syria, according to the United Nation High Commission for Refugees. It included asylum seekers, economic migrants, and Islamic State militants, that have also crossed the borders to Europe disguised as refugees (). Since the rise of ISIS, there has been an increase in security warning in Europe, after the Paris attack on February 2017, and also the Barcelona and London attack, which has created fear on peoples security around Europe.Since the migration crisis of 2015, the death toll at sea rose to a record level, more than 3770 people including, children’s, have lost their lives trying to cross the Mediterranean sea by boat in 2015 according to The International Organization for Migrant (IOM) (). Migrants arriving by sea in 2015, 56% were adult males, 18% adult females, and 25% minors under 18 years of age.According to Eurostat, Europe has received around 1.2 million asylum applications in 2015, this was more than double compared to previous year, showing an increase in the asylum application.Europe finds itself in a massive struggled to cope with the arrival of 1.5 million people crossing the Mediterranean sea in search of a better life, security, education etc. (    ) One of the main causes of the increased rise in migration to Europe is the Syrian war. The majority of people coming to Europe according to the UN and the Italian and the Greek government are from Syria (). The anti-regime in March of 2011 has lead to a civil war in Syria, which caused an estimated of 220,000 deaths according to the United Nations. () this has caused many Syrian to flee the country to look for safety.People fleeing armed conflict in the Middle East migrate to Europe because they see Europe as an opportunity of scape and as a place of wealth and peace compared to their countries that are full of violence and despair ()Furthermore, many migrants from Africa fleed to Europe, in the search of a better lifestyle. There has been an alarming rise in the number of boats arriving from Africa to Europe. Most recently, early August 2017, dozens of African migrants landed on a Spanish beach, whilst many sunbathers watched them arrive in the Spanish soles. () an estimate of more than 9000 migrants has arrived in Spain in 2017. This has been the most the country has seen since the start of the immigration crisis in Europe. This is was said to be due to Italy and Greece routes being restricted. Since Italy has adopted an extreme approach to stop the migration in the Mediterranean, by backing the Libyan coast guards rescue efforts and cracking down on nongovernmental organizations operating off the country’s coast.Despite not all migrants arriving in Europe choose to claim asylum, many do. Germany is considered to have received one of the highest numbers of asylum applications in 2015, with over 477,000 applications placing Hungary in second with an estimated of 177 000 applications ()Since the migrations crisis in Europe, there have been many policy responses to the crisis. Europe has agreed on a range of measures to tackle the crisis, this includes trying to resolve the roots that cause the crisis, saving lives, reducing flows, protecting borders, opening safe pathways and showing solidarity at home and abroad.Emergency relocation of 170,000 refugees from Greece, Italy, and Hungary, has created a permanent mechanism for all members. Making return policy more effective. However, this proposal did not address safeguards of the rights of the asylum seekers, waiting for the procedures to be finished. On the contrary, the solution was focused on decreasing the number of asylum seeker that Europe was having to deal with.The Dublin system also has determined which European country is responsible for processing applications for international protection. The right to apply for asylum has been laid down in the Geneva Convention, which all European countries signed. This rule has spelled out the European obligations and responsibility for those in most need (). However there were plans for reform of this regulation and yet, in December 2016 the reform was not adopted still. As consequence, between 2015 to 2016 nothing was done by the EU to protect the asylum seekers rights.Many European countries tightened their policies and borders since 2015. In 2016, the European Union created a policy called ‘one in, one out’ which was a very controversial deal made with Turkey, to stop the mass flow of migrants from the Middle East. () However, this deal provided legal ways for refugees to enter Europe. Despite being so controversial, the numbers of migrants coming from Turkey has reduced significantly as a result. The EU has been very supportive to Italy and Greece in helping authorities to manage the migration flows.() Despite not being so involved with the crisis in the beginning due to many issues happening in the country with the government and elections. The UK has said that it will accept 20,000 refugees from Syria over a period of five years()The EU has also increased its rescue operation in the Mediterranean Sea to help save lives and to tackle any criminal networks. This has helped save over 400 000 people lives between 2015 and 2016, and 2 000 traffickers and smugglers were caught and 375 vessels being removed () This showed that they were being very successful with their policies and that many lives were safe after Europe increases its rescues operation in the Mediterranean sea.Europe has also been working closely with key countries in Africa such as Nigeria,  to reduce the flow of migrants, the EU believes that tackling the roots that causes migration is one of the key areas to be addressed.A new  European Border and Coastguard was also launched in 2016, to help Europe protects its borders and to adapt itself to, when new security challenges arise. Over 1500 officers were deployed to support other members states at external borders, in addition to the 100 000 border guards in the member states ()Around 17.7 billion euros has been allocated from Europe to support the migration crisis in between 2015-2017, including around 10.3 billion euros for funding outside Europe and an estimated of 2.7 billion euros to fund humanitarian aid() this aid has helped migrants and refugees outside Europe, in places like, Jordan, Lebanon, Iraqi and Turkey. Over 48 projects have been signed worth over 1.6 billion in 2017 to show solidarity at home and abroad. Europe has been the leading donor in response to the Syrian war crisis, donating over 9.4 billion euros in humanitarian, and improving local assistance.  () this was one of the policies the EU had to show solidarity at home and abroad.The European way of tackling the migration crisis has been highly divisive. Members states took the matter into their own hands. We had Germany inviting the asylum seekers to its sole and other states, chose to protect itself and limit the numbers of asylum seekers entering their land. The Czech Republic was performing human rights violation due to its government policy designed to deter asylum seekers.The president of the European Council has indicated recently last month that he was prepared to remove the ‘ineffective’ scheme, but he was then criticised by Greece by his ‘pointless’ comments. Addressing the issue Angela Merkel said ‘ we need solidarity not just in regulating and steering migration’. ()The president of the European Commission has dismissed Hungary’s request for money to tighten its border against migrants, reminding them of the humanitarian consideration and the principles of human rights. () There has been much political tension, surrounding the immigration crisis in Europe. After UK voting to leave the European Union, many pointed that they wanted to get away with the migration crisis in Europe and set its own policies on the areas of immigration, without needing to work together with the EU on the migration crisis.Also, Italy’s local election in June saw a wave of anti-immigrant mayors. Critics say the result that the result has caused the center-left party reeling, forcing Italian leaders to sort solutions at the cost of migrants lives.While thousands of asylum seekers traveled through European borders, Europeans leaders were throwing accusations at each other for not finding a solution, the political system and friendship between European leaders seemed doomed into chaos.Government across Europe have fortified their countries borders. In February 2017, European leaders settled plans to slow the flow of migrants traveling across the Mediterranean from Libya to Italy, and has boosted the ability to deport people back.()It was clear that the EU was not well prepared to prevent the current migrant crisis since it has lead to internal divisions and absence of comprehensive policy.


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