i. which has dry climate and periodically faces

        i.           
Reducing the gap in supply
and demand of feed and fodder

Substantial
gaps already exist in availability of green fodder, dry fodder and concentrates
both at the national as well as state level. Change in cropping pattern from
cereal to non-cereals based crops has affected the availability of fodder. Crop
resides contribute significantly to fodder availability also. Any decline in
area under various crops results in shortage of fodder ultimately affecting the
livestock. Green fodder is cultivated for exclusive use as feed for livestock.
The crop residues like straw of paddy, wheat and stover of groundnut and pulses
are the by-products used as dry fodder. The concentrate feeding as a production
ration for productive animal is fed to increase the yield of milk and meat
purpose animals and to increase the stamina of draught animals. There has been
shortage of all the three types of feed and fodder both at the national level
as well as the state level. The deficit percentage is increasing year-by-year.
State like Gujarat which has dry climate and periodically faces deficit
rainfall has shortage of green fodder. The increase in the number of animals
has put a pressure on the feed. The acreage is limited but demand is
increasing. This puts a great challenge on how to reduce the gap in requirement
and availability of feed and fodder.

Table 47:
Availability and Requirement of Feed and Fodder in Gujarat (projected on the
basis of 2008-09 figure)

Fodder Type

2008-09

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

2014-15

Green Fodder

Availability
(MT)

26.00

26.03

26.05

26.08

26.10

26.13

26.16

Requirement
(MT)

36.00

36.62

37.24

37.88

38.53

39.19

39.86

Percent
deficit

-27.77

-28.92

-30.05

-31.15

-32.24

-33.32

-34.37

Dry Fodder

Availability
(MT)

15.00

15.03

15.06

15.09

15.12

15.15

15.18

Requirement
(MT)

14.60

14.85

15.10

15.36

15.63

15.89

16.16

Percent
deficit

2.4

1.21

0.29

-1.77

-3.23

-4.66

-6.08

Concentrates

Availability
(MT)

4.10

4.10

4.10

4.10

4.10

4.10

4.10

Requirement
(MT)

15.30

15.56

15.83

16.10

16.37

16.65

16.94

Percent
deficit

-73.2

-73.65

-74.1

-74.53

-74.96

-75.38

-75.79

Source:
Report of the Advisory Committee on Animal Husbandry & Dairying, Planning
Commission, GoI, Yojana Bhavan, New Delhi, January-2010

    
ii.           
Feeding the increasing
number of livestock

The
livestock sector has witnessed tremendous increase in the number of crossbred
cow. During the last quinquennium, crossbred cow increased at a CAGR of 11
percent. It clearly indicates the increased requirement of feed and fodder. But
if looked at the CAGR of green fodder, dry fodder and concentrate feed, these
all have remain stagnant with virtually no growth.

Table
48: Growth
rate of livestock, feed and fodder

Particulars

2007*

2012*

CAGR (%)

Crossbred cow (million)

1.14

1.93

11

Livestock (million)

23.52

26.29

2.3

Green fodder (MT)

26000.00

26130.00

0.1

Dry fodder (MT)

15000.00

15151.00

0.2

Concentrate (MT)

4100.00

4100.00

0.0

*For green
fodder, dry fodder and concentrate, data pertain to 2008-09 and 2013-14.

(Computed by author
using data from Planning commission and DAHD)

 

  
iii.           
Application of chaff
cutter for fodder before feeding to livestock

During
survey of livestock farmers, it was observed that the animals were fed uncut
fodder. The fodder was given in front of the animal on the floor. This
ultimately leads to decreased digestibility as well as wastage of fodder. The
government is promoting chaff cutter for chaffing or cutting the fodder in
small pieces before feeding the animals since recent past. . Still it is a big
challenge to make the farmer understand the benefits of chaff cutting before
feeding the animal.

Opportunities:

a)     
Silage as an
alternative for feeding the animal during season of green fodder
non-availability
Silage making refers to treating the
green fodder with urea and preserving it to be used during lean season. Maize
is one of the best fodder suitable for silage. The state has substantial area
under maize fodder cultivation. It shows good opportunity in the feed sector.

b)    
Promoting cultivation
of azolla fern which is found to be rich in micro-nutrients as an important
alternative to green fodder        
Azolla fern is rich in protein. Around
750 tonnes of azolla can be collected from one acre of bed prepared especially
for azolla production. It can be included in the ration and fed in the ratio of
1:1 with concentrate. It increases the milk production in dairy animals.

c)     
Hydroponics
Hydroponic is one of the emerging area
in the feed sector. The limited land for fodder crop can be addressed to some
extent by the adoption of hydroponics. Hydroponics means growing plant in water
instead of soil. The multistory structure can have many layers of fodder and is
grown indoor. It can ensure round the year cultivation. Further study is
required to evaluate the feasibility of hydroponic system in India.

d)    
Opportunities for
private sector in concentrate and compound feed 
Though cooperatives are dominating in
the supply of compound feed, still many private players have shown their
presence in the state. Private labels found during the study are Champion Agro Limited, Patanjali animal feed, Gujarat
Ambuja Exports Ltd., Hindustan Animal Feeds, Ganesh Food Industries, Mahalaxmi
Agro Industries, Kamdhenu Enterprise.

Table
49:
Compound feed requirement and availability in Gujarat

Daily requirement of compound feed
(TPD)

20,000

Daily availability (TPD)

10,000

Production by dairy cooperative (11
plants)

5690