Human many ways that computers have developed over

Human Computer Interaction (HCI) is research based upon the human use of computer systems, focusing on the interface and also the interactions between the two. This study is important as it helps pave the way for enabling humans and computer interactions to advance significantly, meaning that it is easier to interface with these devices as humans. There are many ways a human can interact with such devices, and this is sure to increase as technology and research advances over time.Evaluate how the use of computers has developed from the use of early computers to today’s interactive devices:One of the many ways that computers have developed over the many years is through the interface it has, for example: the Command Line Interface (CLI), to the Graphical User Interface (GUI). i will talk about some of the changes between the two interfaces below.ThemeCommand Line InterfaceGraphical User Interface Speed Command line only requires the use of a keyboard by the user, often meaning that it performs significantly faster.Although GUI is Getting faster and faster, as it uses both a mouse and keyboard to navigate it, it is still however slower than CLI.ControlUsers can control both of the file and operating systems in CLI fairly easily. However, it is not too easy for new or novice users to pick up, unlike GUI.GUI offers easy access to a lot of things, including software features, files and basically the whole operating system. It is far more user friendly than CLI, this is why it is used by more users, including new and novice users. MultitaskingMany command line interfaces are capable of performing multiple tasks simultaneously, they aren’t as easy as GUI, and cannot view multiple things at once on one screen.  GUI allows its users to perform many tasks at the same time, including the use of multiple things on a single screen, as well as toggling through folders and programs at the same time ScriptsCLI requires users to already know scripting commands as well as syntax prior to writing them, making it more difficult for new users to understand it Users can create scripts in GUI with the help of programing software, which helps both experienced and novice users with scripting by guiding them and offering helpful tips.sense orientation, graphical, speech and touchThe development of UI in these areas:hardwareScreens: Screened devices have come a significantly long way since first being developed. An example of an early screen is a CRT screen, which allowed for very little user input. They were traditionally used in old television sets, and some computer monitors. The main source of input was a simple button system to change the TV channel. This has advanced significantly over the years, to things such as the HP 150, containing a monitor with a touch screen interface device, allowing users to utilize a stylus to input data into the machine, in opposition to a traditional mouse. However, the technology was still very limited due to it being in 1983. A typical modern screen nowadays is an OLED screen, otherwise known as an Organic Light Emitting Diode, these are used in devices such as mobile phones, televisions, handheld games devices and computer monitors to create digital displays. Most of these devices are touch screen compatible, meaning it is very easy for the user to interact with said devices. Pointing Devices: Pointing devices are devices in which a user inputs spatial data into a computer. The most common of these would be a mouse on a computer, the way in which this works would be is the user moves the mouse and the movements are echoed onto the screen. Another significant pointing device would be a Joystick, which has been used for generations to control the movement of a cursor or a sprite in a game. The joystick was not very advanced, and had quite limited movement, but still served its purpose. The traditional mouse has significantly more directional control over the joystick, and also allowing the user to select things while the pointer is over a selection via the use of two buttons, located where the fingers rest. A third significant pointing device worth mentioning is a motion control pointing device, such as a Wiimote or a Playstation Move controller, which allowed the user to redirect the pointer with a simple wrist movement. It offered very good control, but wasn’t very responsive at times, leading to the traditional mouse still prevailing as the top.Voice Control:Voice controlled devices are still a rather new thing in the world of Human-Computer interaction, however, most modern mobile devices have their own built in form of voice control. A well known example would be the Apple iPhone, and Siri, its built in “Intelligent Personal Assistant,” which understands commands made by the user and responds appropriately to the user initiated command. This has been replicated by Microsoft’s Windows phone, and Cortana, which uses the same principles as Siri and performs similar tasks. Another way that voice command has been utilised in devices for interaction with humans is for handsfree use in motor vehicles, allowing the user to perform tasks without having to take their hands off of the wheel or lose concentration on the road to press a button. A third and final way that voice control has been utilised is in Artificial Intelligence. Amazon’s Echo device, and Google’s Home device allow for the user to interact with the AI verbally and hear responses from it. Biometrics: Biometrics is a new and exciting future for the interfacing between humans and computer devices. A relatively new feature to mobile devices is fingerprint scanning to unlock your devices. This allows for quick and easy access into a device. It is also more secure than a simple passcode, needing the actual users fingerprint to allow access. With the recent release of the iPhone X, apple has implemented facial recognition software, which scans the user’s face to allow them entry to the device. This is a great leap forwards from the fingerprint scanner as it is a hands free alternative. 3D Interfaces:3D interfaces are still a very new breakthrough in the field of HI, there aren’t a lot of examples for places it has been used due to the newness and the intricacy of the designs. One example of a system that uses 3D interfaces is a games console, the Nintendo Wii. For example, the Wii allowed the user to input motion control, such as drawing a bow, the UI allowed for the shot’s path to be tracked and showed feedback on it. Another place that 3D interfaces have been utilised is in mobile phones, They contain many little features such as GPS, Gyroscopes and dozens of other applications that allow the user to harness the potential of 3D interfaces. Virtual and Augmented Reality:Both virtual and augmented reality have a very promising future within HCI as both allow the user to gain more visionary control over what they are viewing. For example, a big name in the field of VR is the Oculus, owned by facebook, which is a device which allows the user o wearer to see a screen from a first person perspective, as if they were inside whatever it is they are observing. Augmented reality allows the user to bend nature and make things more meaningful by giving the user control over it. This is particularly useful in departments such as architecture, allowing users to create and visualise structures with the press of a button. AI Systems:As i previously mentioned in the voice control section, in recent years companies have invested a lot of time and money into Artificial Intelligence, or AI for short. Two big and significant AI systems currently are the previously mentioned Home and Echo devices. These both require a connection to the internet to perform their tasks that have been requested by the user. They are incredibly easy to use, once you know the basic commands for them and are paving the way towards the future interfacing between humans and computers. A few earlier versions of AI are things such as Siri and Cortana, siri being described as an “Intelligent personal Assistant” performing similar tasks to the Home and the Echo, but more limited compared to the other two due to its handheld capabilities.Evaluate how the interaction between users and computers changes depending on who uses it, the device they use and the need it is being used for:The interaction between users and their devices can change depending on the many factors within that statement, for example, expert users are more likely to excel at the task they are trying to perform, whereas beginner users might struggle a bit and take significantly more time to achieve the same task. Expert users can typically perform a wide range of tasks without much difficulty, across many devices. Whereas an occasional user might be able to do a couple of tasks with a bit of a struggle on some devices, but not all. Beginner users might only have 1 or 2 devices, and not be very confident on using them. Regular users might be users that use several devices on a daily basis, and can perform a large variety of different tasks across their devices, but struggle when it comes to devices they don’t encounter regularly. Users who encounter a large range of devices more often are typically safer with these devices. They know that after use for an extended period of time, some devices may get very warm and cause harm due to burns, but a user that uses these devices less often might not know this and might acquire an injury due to overuse of the device. If the device has a problem, it might be easy for an expert user to solve and fix, but a beginner user might struggle and cause harm to themselves. Expert users know how to be safe and fix devices without causing harm to themselves and others.The Ergonomics of a device is dependant on who uses it and for what purpose, for example, anyone can use a mobile phone to make a phone call as it does not require a vast amount of experience, phones are small and handheld, making them convenient as they can be held to the ear easily. A more experienced user might find it easier to use a mouse and keyboard in comparison to a small touchscreen as they are more adapted and have used a mouse and keyboard more frequently than a mobile device. The interaction between humans and computers lays very heavily on who is using them, this can influence the reason they are using them, the devices available, and the age of the user and their background. These are all important factors, for example, someone in their mid 20s will most likely be using a smartphone device or a laptop to access their social media, to keep in contact with their friends and make posts. If it was an elderly person, they may also use social media, but instead use a tablet device to keep in contact with friends, as tablets have larger screens and make it easier for the elderly to read it. If it was an avid gamer using their device to play games with their friends, they might use a PC. Some people have very little access to these devices, they might only get access to them at a public library, or a web café. Some people who have very little education might come across devices like computers or smartphones very rarely.Talk about accessibility features that help users that are less mobile to use systems:Some people don’t have the same mobility or body movement as most users, and are restricted in several ways, so they might not be able to use computers and such devices like the average user, luckily there are many creative alternatives that have been created to give the user back their ability to use such devices, despite their mobility issues. One such example is Eye Tracking Software. This software allows users who are unable to use their hands to move around a cursor or perform any movement task a mouse could with just the use of their eyes. Another accessibility feature is the magnifier tool, which allows people with vision problems to help them see the screen clearer. Another is foot pedals, which allow the user to perform tasks with their feet instead of with their hands if they are unable to do so.Evaluate the use of self checkouts in shops and how people interact with touch screen systems and facilities, and how the user interacts with these things:Self checkouts have revolutionised shopping by creating a faster and more efficient method of purchasing items. Unlike human workers, machines do not need paying, or breaks or even time off. The only thing they need is occasional repairs. This allows companies to spend less money hiring human staff, as a machine can do their job. However, some people prefer the interaction with other people, and may find the machines confusing, particularly the elderly, who may find getting used to new technology a challenge. The touch screen element of the device means that it is easy access, and anyone can use it. It is both more practical and easier than any other type of pointing device, as most people are used to touchscreen devices, as they have encountered a modern mobile phone or tablet device and already know how easy they are to operate. Users may be in a rush when shopping, and self service checkouts require little effort to actually operate and use, in comparison to a long checkout queue.The impact of HCI on:HCI has had an incredibly large effect on the way we use systems. It has allowed us to significantly advance into more intricate and complicated uses. The advances in HCI allow for us to use systems for many different scenarios, whether it be things such as Navigation, via a maps app, instead of using a handheld paper map, you use a mobile device or Sat Nav. or for things such as communication, we can easily communicate to anywhere in the world with a few quick and simple button presses. We can research things that we didn’t know, or are intrigued by, instead of going to a library to acquire information, we can just use a search engine on a device. Systems can now develop their own responses, such as Artificial Intelligence, they can adapt to our questions when we use things such as voice commands in opposition to regular controls.  HCI has allowed people from all over the world to communicate and make friends on a wide range of devices, from a small handheld cellular device, to a PC. it has created a way for humans to input their thoughts and words and shoot that off to all over the planet with just a few clicks. This has lead to people being reunited with long lost friends and family, but on the opposite end, has lead to people being able to invade others privacy and blackmail others. One such thing that has become easier due to social advances in HCI is Online Dating. You can find people with common interests online and meet up in person, instead of talking to people in a bar or a club by just using a website or an app on a mobile phone. HCI has made the use of devices so easy that practically anyone can use them and have some basic level of knowledge on what they can do.HCI has allowed for several breakthroughs in cultural division to be made,allowing for people take down the language barrier that sets people apart, it allows people to communicate with ease to someone who speaks a completely different language through the use of translating apps and software. HCI has many subtle ways it has entered our daily lives due to the way we use our technology, for example, things like television have become a large part of most people’s daily routine, and these keep on improving in things like size and quality to satisfy users and make them want to purchase new TV sets. People can now read books digitally instead of having to purchase a hardback handheld book, they can enjoy a relaxing read from their smartphone or tablet devices. HCI Is a great leap forward into increasing productivity and work done in work establishments, but it also has its downsides to it too. It increases the amount of work done, and sometimes the quality of work being produced, but this can also allow for people to get lazy and start doing less work, which may lead to lower intelligence levels if workers are allowing for machines to do all of their work for them. This could also be bad as this might mean that human workers will get replaced by Machines, as they don’t need pay or rest, just maintenance every so often, this can lead to people losing their jobs and their income sources due to a machine doing their job.HCI has had an incredibly large impact on the economy in many ways, for example, the improvements in HCI have allowed for people to improve productivity in the workplace due to having machines and computers aiding them in their tasks, meaning that they are more efficient, thus meaning that they get more work done in less time, which is saving money. Another large part is that research and studies into HCI allows for Computers and devices to constantly be upgraded and improved on, leading to better products and devices being developed, leading to more people buying new products to replace older ones, meaning more money spent on these devices, meaning more money for the company.HCI has allowed for all kinds of people who might have had difficulty using machines or devices to utilise them, one such example is people who  have visual impairments, there are many types of screen magnifying software and apps to allow for these people to see their screen with ease, and read text that they could once not be able to see. This allows for them to perform tasks which their impairment might have prevented them from doing in the past.


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