High reasons, insufficiently committed to educational success. They

High school dropouts are teenagers who have
stopped going to high school before they get their grade twelve diploma. receive their12
diplomaMany Canadian adolescents graduate from high school and go on to post-secondary- education such as
college and university, or do trade apprenticeships. However, this is not the case
for 1 in 12 Canadians aged 20 to 24. (Gilmore, 2009). Unfortunately, high
school dropouts are quite common in Canada despite the fact that it’s
encouraged and expected that teens finish high school. WWhat are hat is the causecauses of adolescents dropping
out of High school? Many sociologistssociologists have studied the socio-economiceconomic factors that lead to
teenagers dropping out of school.  

Who is
affected is affected

The rates of high school dropouts have steadily
decreased from the year 1990 compared to 2009 for high school dropouts are
According to Stats Canada. One of the main causes for dropping out according to
(INSERT NAME) are money, lack of parental support, academic struggles, boredom
and finally pregnancy and parenthood.

According to (I/N) there are three reasons that the
system is failing “first is school quality, interpreted broadly to include
curriculum and provincial education regulations, quality of teacher training
offered by teacher’s colleges, experience of teaching staff in particular
schools, school infrastructure and so on. Second is the disturbing emergence of
a gender gap whereby boys perform consistently less well in formal education
than girls. Third is the idea that relevant cultural, political and
administrative elites are, for whatever historical reasons, insufficiently
committed to educational success. They may be committed to educational success
for their own children, but tolerant of widespread educational failures
elsewhere in their communities. To these three factors, I add a fourth: the
syndrome of low Aboriginal education outcomes, especially among those who
identify as North American Indian/First Nation.” (Page #)

The rates of high school dropouts have steadily
decreased from the year 1990 compared to 2009. Some of the Sociological factors
that influence dropout rates are teenage pregnancy, economically disadvantaged
youth and parental graduation rates. According to research done by John
Richards et al, certain segments of the population are at higher risks than
others. Dropout rates are significantly higher for aboriginal youth as opposed
to non-aboriginal youth; boys also tend to have higher dropout rates than
girls; and teenagers living in rural areas have higher dropout rates than their
city counterparts. According to Mendelson (2006), approximately 43 per cent of
Aboriginals between the ages of 20 and 24 have not graduated from high school.
The numbers increase to 58 percent when the people living on reserves are
included. This drastic difference of aboriginal dropout rates compared to
non-aboriginals can be blamed on different socio-economic factors including
“Aboriginal people live in a community that is influenced by the high alcohol
consumption and the dropout background, the Canadian people are surrounded by a
social frame that motivates them to pursue their education.” (Noiseux, 2017)
Because aboriginals don’t live in community where academic success is
encouraged, they lose motivation to achieve well in school. They are also
caught in a cycle of generations of dropouts, so the children take after their
parents and don’t continue their education. Aborignal communities are plagued
by poverty, high rates of drug and alcohol abuse and lack of sufficient
resources. They sometimes perceive education as a colonial aspiration that does
not agree with their traditional ways (Noiseux, 2017).

There is also a much higher rate of dropouts
with male compared to female. “In 2009/2010, 10.3% of young men and 6.6% of
young women had dropped out of high school.” (Bowlby, 2010). The rates for both
groups dropped significantly from 1990, when 19.2% of men and 14.0% of women
had dropped out of high school. Over time the gap has diminished slightly from
5.2% to 3.7% but still remains noticeable. Sociologists have studied the
reasons for this gap and have come to multiple different reasons. Men usually
report that they wanted to work and earn money because they were not interested
in school. On the other hand, women gave more personal reasons such as
pregnancy or having a kid to take care of at home. (Bowlby, 2010)

“Among those aged 45 and over, men have a higher
high-school graduation rate and higher rates of post-secondary and university
certification. Among those under 45, all three rankings are reversed. Among
Canadians aged 25 to 34, four out of seven university graduates are women; four
of seven without high-school diplomas are men. Canadians under age 45 at the
time of the 2006 census were born in 1961 or after. This generation was part of
a major social transformation that was characterized by the removal of barriers
to female education and a “catching up” to men in terms of earnings
(although we have still not “caught up”)” (Richards, 2009).  Another reason that women have lower rates of
dropping out of school is that many initiatives have been implemented in the
past forty to fifty years to help the gender imbalance in primary and secondary
school. Some feel that catering to girls has led to boys falling behind. This
recognition has led to initiatives to have classrooms that are inclusive to
both girls and boys (Richards, 2009)


The causes for high school dropouts can be
linked to two different factors called the push and pull dropout factors
according to Jordan et al. (1994). He explains that a student is pushed out
when adverse situations within the school environment lead to consequences,
ultimately resulting in dropout. These include tests, attendance and discipline
policies, and even consequences of poor behavior. However, students can be
pulled out when factors inside the student lead them to not complete school. These
occur when factors, such as financial worries, out-of-school employment, family
needs, or even family changes, such as marriage or childbirth, pull students
away from school. They can even include illnesses, as these cause students to
put a greater value on something outside of school, and therefore graduating is
not a priority. 

In 1994, Watt and Roessingh introduced a third reason
which they referred to as falling out of school. This occurs “when a student
does not show significant academic progress in schoolwork and becomes apathetic
or even disillusioned with school completion. It is not necessarily an active
decision, but rather a “side-effect of insufficient personal and educational
support.” Unlike the push or pull theory, falling out factors explain the process
where the teenager gradually disengages from school because the have found things
that interests them more. As a result, these students eventually disappear or
fall out from the system. (Walters, 2013)


Many negative consequences come from adolescents
dropping out of highschool and not continuing their education post secondary. Data
from the Bureau of Labor Statistics states “high school dropouts are having a
harder time finding and keeping jobs than individuals with higher levels of
education. In fact, the national unemployment rate for high school dropouts in
July 2009 was 15.4 percent, compared to 9.4 percent for high school graduates,
7.9 percent for individuals with some college credits or an associate’s degree,
and 4.7 percent for individuals with a bachelor’s degree or higher.” (Amos,
2009) The report, “The Consequences of Dropping Out of High School: Joblessness
and Jailing for High School Dropouts and the High Cost for Taxpayers concludes
that the average high school dropout will have a negative net contribution to
society of nearly $5,200, while the average high school graduate generates a
positive lifetime contribution of $287,000 from age eighteen to sixty-four.”
(Amos, 2009)


Mendelson suggests a number strategies that can
be used to increase the number of Aboriginal students graduating from high
school. His strategies include “setting milestones for improvement of
graduation rates, with specific target rates and dates by which those targets
must be met, and establishing a way of monitoring to ensure the milestones are
achieved.” (Staff, 2006)

Promoting the idea that education can help
Aboriginal people achieve better living conditions is crucial to any plan. Noiseux
believes that improving the standard and access to pre-school and primary
education on reserves and elsewhere will help improve the problem. “Also,
provincial Minister of Education should allow school districts to take
discretionary initiatives in Aboriginal education.”(Noiseux, 2017) Third, all
provinces should increase funding and provide incentive programs to encourage
aboriginal students to graduate and attend post-secondary school. (Noiseux 2017)


In conclusion high school dropout rates have significantly declined
since 1990 but there are still populations who are lagging behind like
aboriginal teens. We need to do better to help get their rates of graduation up
to the national standard.  We also need
to ensure that while we are helping girls close the education and wage gap in
Canada, that boys do not fall by the way-side. As we have seen the cost to
society of having high school dropouts can be high.