For all the times of humanity’s history, people were
needed in energy just in order to exist. Nowadays science and technology made
so big progress that the sources of getting energy are very diverse. There are
renewable (green) and non-renewable sources of energy. Renewable energy sources
in comparison with non-renewables are more safe in ecological aspect and have
unlimited amount of resources. Unfortunately, in spite of all these advantages,
non-renewable energy sources are in demand more than green energy sources due
to many reasons. Technologies of green energy sources are too expensive and
have difficulties in building. In addition, the population of Earth is fast and
constantly growing, which leads to the growth of energy consumption. For example,
only in 2015-year consumption of oil were 39% of
the global energy consumption, of coal – 28%, of gas – 22% and consumption of
renewables was: wind – 0.22%, solar – 0.03% (“The world’s most used energy
sources”). It is obvious that consumption of fossil fuels are much bigger than
consumption of green energy. This kind of situation leads to the problem of
limit resources of fossil fuels especially resources of oil. Oil remained the
world’s leading fuel, accounting for almost a third (33.3%) of global energy
consumption. Oil gained global market share for the second year in a row,
following 15 years of declines from 1999 to 2014 (“Oil and oil product
consumption”). Moreover, it is not all about oil consumption. The main point is
that oil consumption constantly grows. Global oil consumption growth averaged
1.6 million b/d, above the 10-year average of 1 million b/d for the second
successive year (“Oil and oil product consumption”). Such annual colossal
consumption of oil definitely leads to the emergence of global problems of an
ecological, technical and economic aspect, which humanity has to solve promptly
pollution because of waste;
warming because of CO2 emission;
pollution because of transportation of oil products;
4) A possible economic crisis in case of ending of oil
resources (? – professor’s opinion and
advice is needed)
to renewable energy sources;
in development, implantation and use of new highly advanced technologies for
non-waste and environmentally friendly production;
pipelines and robust impenetrable tanks for transportation;
and use alternative standard or model of base of ecomony.
Just one gallon of used/waste oil can make a million gallons of fresh
A film of used/waste oils on water surface prevents oxygen from entering
the water and blocks sunlight. This makes it difficult for plants to
photosynthesize and reduces plant and animal life in water body. Oils have considerable
potential to cause environmental damage by virtue of their ability to spread over
large areas of land and water.
Very small concentrations of used/waste oils (50 to 100 ppm) in the
wastewater can foul sewage treatment plants, resulting in increased maintenance
costs and reduced treatment efficiency.
Used/waste oils applied to land can render the soil unproductive.
Used/waste oils oil placed in landfill may seep through the bottom of
such landfill and subsequently contaminate groundwater supplies.
Used/waste oils pollution can affect a high fish mortality rate and affect
the reproductive cycle. These considerations are important in relation to the
food chain and ultimate consumption of these fish and fish products.
In the environment, used/waste oils degrade very slowly. Between 20% to
80% of petroleum products in soil are degraded after 1 year. For waterways,
only 20% get degraded.
People’s heath can affected if used/waste oils are handled improperly.
Most used/waste oils contain small amounts of materials that can cause cancer
and other health problems if these materials are inhaled and ingested. Used/waste
oils can be ingested if they get into drinking water sources and are not
detected and removed.
Spillage of used/waste oils into soil can bring changes in the biological
cycles in the soil. The presence of used motor oils in the soil inhibits plant
development since oil fills the pores between the soil particles and hampers oxygen
access. Also the metal content of surviving plants is increased. These metals
inhibit carbon mineralization, nitrogen transformations and mineralization of
sulphur and phosphorous.
Uncontrolled burning of used/waste oils may result in significant levels
of hazardous emissions to the environment. This may expose humans, wildlife and
vegetation to harmful substances.