Fascism, gave Mussolini the most credit for changing

Fascism,
is a term that describes dictatorship power, by having suppression toward
opposition ideas, through the used of violence. 
This term goes back to the 19th century, the times in which fascism
really thrive; with revile figures like Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. In
our century, fascism still exist with the likes of Saddam Hussein, and many
others, who used politics as a front for violence, in order to oppressed any
threat against their ruling. The principle for fascism began with the nation,
as its most important assets. For example, both Hitler and Mussolini, in the beginning,
has the same purpose, which is to make their own country great again, using any
means necessary. “Despite the violence of Fascism in Italy, many people around
the world admired Mussolini, accepting his methods as necessary in Italy to
eliminate the Marxist threat and to bring political stability. Outside
observers, however, gave Mussolini the most credit for changing the economy”(Zander,
p.28). With Italy’s political power being unstable, and the socialism being on
the rise. Mussolini was able to take advantage of the situation, using the
observer’s fears to push himself as a dominant power of the new country.

Similar to Mussolini, Hitler want to re-unify his country into a single great
German nation, and also overturn the Treaty of Versailles, which took away
Germany’s overseas colonies, restrict its borders, limited its arm forces, and
imposed crushing reparation payments. “Hitler justified his actions by insisting
that he was merely correcting the wrong made by the various decisions of the
Paris Peace Conference in 1919. In re-configuring Europe’s nations in Central
Europe, Hitler said, the German-speaking people had been divided up amongst
several nations. He would bring them all back together under the German
Reich”(Zander, p.32-33). With Germany dealing with terrible condition of the made
by the treaty of Versailles, they were looking for a solution, even through
extreme measure. Hitler would promise the people he would restore the country’s
economy, however with that power, he would eventually turns into one of the
most hated man in the world.

In
the book, Fascism is defined as “the premise that the “nation” is the supreme
authority to which all other things (even individual freedoms or democratic
rights) must be subordinated” (Zander, p.25). This means that the creation of a
nation itself is needed to rise as the main authority, and how individual
rights would becomes the lesser important to its main principles. It also stated
how fascist believed in the private ownership of state ownership, and
encouraged the ideas of the privately owned means of production, for it would maximize
the benefits of industry to the nation as a whole. Also, they believe in
violence as a legitimate method to accomplish political objectives. “From
street violence perpetrated against opposing parties, to the use of torture,
summary executions, and concentration camps, fascist regimes used extraordinary
violence against their own citizens.”(Zander, p.25) They also supports war as a
means to rise and become the most powerful.  They also believed in the idea that called
exclusive nationalism. “This is the idea that there are certain defining
characteristics of a nation that must be protected and cultivated for that
community to thrive” (Zander, p.26). Such characteristic includes physical
traits, such as hair, skin colors, facials features, etc. Another
characteristic is the cultural traits, with language and religion being the
most important, and then comes political affiliations, etc. The characteristic
of traits would become a part of the main essential in the world of Fascism.

From
my understanding after reading the book, the reason why Hitler and Mussolini
was able to come to power was because of their country’s political instability,
economic turmoil and social tension. These reasons make both the government and
the people wants a drastic change, by any means necessary. The downfalls of
Italy started with the Treaty of London, which was a secret treaty established
in 1915, that stated to promised Italy of receiving territories in Central
Europe, if the Allied were to be victorious. Eventually the Allied Power would
be victorious, with Italy being on their side. However, their plan would be
backfired, because of President Woodrow Wilson “Fourteen Points”. This is a
statement of principles for peace that was introduced in the Paris Peace
Conference. One of the principles that was introduced was the open diplomacy,
which stated that there shall be no private international understanding of any
kind, and all treaties and diplomacies will be proceed to the public view. With
this being introduced, Italy request would be denied. “At the Paris Peace
Conference, however, Italy was denied those territories as part of a wider
effort to eliminate secret diplomacy going forward. Italian governmental
officials walked out of the Peace Conference and returned home to Italy having
secured only the tiniest of additional territory” (Zander, p.27). From this
humiliating experience, Italy government would begin to unravel and turn into
turmoil.  With chaos being brewed, then
comes Benito Mussolini stepped in. He would then begin his activity, by gathers
his supporters and form a political party, called the “Blackshirts”, which
referred to the color of the uniform the army wear. Mussolini would then use
the party as his own private army. The party’s political activity would become
known as “squadrismo”.  Their political
activity consisted of members organizing into squads, with the mindset of
eliminating every socialist member in the government. “Blackshirts celebrated
such violence and often bragged about their use of castor oil, which when
forced down the throat of a victim could cause that person to vomit themselves
into unconsciousness or even death”(Zander, p.28) This is a form of their political
identity, as they would inflict violence and fight against the rise of
Socialism. From having continuous pressured by the Fascist party, Mussolini
would then rise to power, and established a new form of economy called
Corporatism.

In
Germany, similar events happen, with the government throwing into chaos that
was the caused of a diplomacy, which was passed in the Paris Peace Conference.

This diplomacy was the Treaty of Versailles. “The Treaty places all blame on
Germany for the war, removes Germany’s overseas colonies, severely limits
Germany’s military, reduces Germany’s geographical boundaries, and establishes
a schedule of crushing reparations payments” (Zander, p.29). This treaty would give
Hitler the opening to enter the world of politics. From reading the book, I
feel no empathy for the government of Germany, for they’re the one who handed
Hitler the power to become a dictator himself. “Parliament on March 23, 1933,
passed the “Enabling Act” which essentially gave Hitler absolute power—from
this point on, Hitler could wield dictatorial power”(Zander, p.30). With this
power, Hitler would then soon put his plans to motions to complete his Nazi principles,
that which he stated in his book “Mein Kampf”, which includes his dream of not
only expand his territory into Eastern Europe, but also to attack and conquer
the Soviet Union. 

This
rise and expansion of Fascist dictatorships all started with Benito Mussolini
launching an invasion into, Abyssinia, which is now modern Ethiopia. The reason
for the invasion was to avenge the defeat from when they last fought. The war
lasted about one year with the Italian being victorious, mostly due to the
infamously used of poison gas. That same year, Hitler would make his first move
by invading Rhineland.  Although this was
a region was known as a demilitarized zone, from the conditions of the Treaty
of Versailles, Hitler would reject the treaty, and invade the land with his
army. Hitler would then moved again, this time for Russia. In that same year,
Russia would then become a part of Germany. With this victory, Hitler would
then move to Czechoslovakia and try claimed it back as a part of the German
nation. However, it wouldn’t be easy as those invasions before. Since Czechoslovakia
had treaty agreements with both France and Britain, which stated that, there will
be aid, if there was ever an invasion on any of the three countries. This was
an intense moments for both side, because If Hitler would to moved passed the
Sudetenland, which is located on the outside edge of Czechoslovakia, then that
would resulted in another European war. With the prevention of war, British Prime
Minister Neville Chamberlain meets with Hitler, and reached an agreement to
prevent any further damages. That agreement stated how Hitler would be allowed
to seize the Sudetenland; In exchange that this would be his last move for
expansion.  However, being the lying
devil he is, Hitler would not only seize the Sudetenland, but also the rest of
Czechoslovakia. Based on this action, it could only means that Hitler does not
cared for peace, and that he’s willing to do whatever it takes to have absolute
power. After this victorious invasion, the both Germany and Italy would
complete the deal, by signing an agreement called “The Nazi Soviet
Non-Aggression Pact”(Zander, p.102). This signing was surprising since, in the beginning;
their main speech was accusing each other of being the biggest threat to civilization.

This signing ultimately provides Hitler with the protection he needs, as well
as a pact to stay away from each other territories.

Along
the line of the dictatorship regime, Mussolini and Hitler has both makes an
enemies out of their opposition party, through which used of violence are often
the resulted for their victory.  In
Italy, this principle was used in the murder of Giacomo Matteotti. This
incident happens when Mussolini first came to power. Matteotti was an was an
official that represented the Socialist party. He was also open on his opinion
of Mussolini and the Fascist party. However, his hateful opinions would
eventually end his life, since he passed away, as they found his body in a
ditch outside Rome. Today’s historian said that there found no evidence linking
this murder to Mussolini, however based on the situation, its safe to say that Mussolini
has heard enough of this man, and sent his political party to deal with him.  Another similar events happen in Germany,
where a German parliaments building was set on fire.  This incident was known as the Reichstag Fire,
with this an act being called as arson. The one who was accused of setting the
building on fire was the member of Germany’s Communist Party. This incident had
a lot of doubts since there was no evidence that the communist did it, for
everything inside the building was turn to ashes. Today’s historian also has
doubt that the one behind the fire was Adolf Hitler himself.  Since this incident came after him being
named chancellor, and how he would used this opportunity to targeting the
Communist Party. Hitler would then ask the Parliament for more powers in order
to deal with the communist party. Like puppets on string, they would then agree
and passed the “Enabling Act”, which would gave Hitler absolute power to rule. From
reading the book, I felt that Mussolini and Hitler both have legitimate reasons
with the way that they took power.  With
their country in shambles, they’re both determining to bring back the power
that their country once had.  However,
that ambitions would then becomes the greed for power, which would result in millions
of people dying under their reign.