Evaluating been seen by everyone as inseparable as

the phenomenon of language and how it is constrained by the social context has
been challenging linguist theorists across the world since the early 70ties
when the applied linguistics term was undergoing a major specification-
broadening surgery, addressing real-world focus. As a consequence, linguists
have been trying to find answers by developing extensive avenues that are
understood as processes of active language research into the capability of
individuals and their interactions with others. Given that understanding the
nature of the language and culture universe is central to the process of
learning another language, then these two have not been seen by everyone as
inseparable as they might be regarded today (Simpson, 2011). According to de
Saussure (1986) and Chomsky (1965) studying language as a set of formal
structures is set aside from interactions with others. As can be seen, many
other language theorists hold that contemporary theorising emphasises interacting
individuals rather than individual minds. Searle (1972), for instance suggests
that language structures are shaped in part by speakers’ communication needs,
something which Chomsky doesn’t seem to be acknowledging. If this is the case, then
the language theories in much broader range are practically driven issues of
extraordinary documenting the many ways in which the learners negotiate the
shaping of their identities.


A lot of evidence seems to be present in
citations in language theories and facts relating to language existence in
context. For instance, Chomsky’s behaviourist concept of a thinking mind in his
linguistic, single-culture based theory describes competence as a: ‘Linguistic
theory is concerned primarily with an ideal speaker-listener, in a completely
homogeneous speech-communication, who know its language perfectly and is
unaffected by such grammatically irrelevant conditions as memory limitations,
distractions, shifts of attention and interest, and errors in applying his
knowledge of this language in actual performance’. (Chomsky, 1965). Contrary to
Chomsky, Hymes (1971), from his cognitive point of view claims that social
context is a vital aspect of language input that impacts early language
learning and reviews Chomsky’s linguistic competence as lacking consideration
of the most important linguistic ability of being able to produce and
comprehend utterances which are appropriate to the context in which they are
made. In Bakhtin’s theory of utterance, the target language doesn’t function as
a new cryptograph, but in social situated contexts words are non-neutral “All
words have the ‘taste’ of a profession, a genre, a tendency, a party, a
particular work, a particular person, a generation, an age group, the day and
hour. Each word tastes of the context and contexts in which it has lived its
socially charged life.” Bakhtin (1981).

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Some of these theories highlight the
fact that language learning depends on context, that is ‘situated’ and that new
information can only be grasped when a connection is made to existing knowledge
structures. Furthermore, language learning involves a process of making associations,
reorganising unrelated portions of knowledge and experience into new integrated
rules. As learning also involves making new meanings which are generally
expressed through verbal communication, where students build up on new
experiences from what they already know. Indeed, many critical voices have been
raised at Chomsky for ignoring how real people use language in real situations.
Nevertheless, Tony McEnery and Andrew Wilson claim that rationalist theories
actively seek to make a claim that represents how language processing is undertaken
and from various examples on the extent of context the language is constrained
by, shared on the tutor forum, it is evident that some linguistic obstacles are
down to the language competence of the individual. Svetlana’s example,
mentioned in Julian’s post contribution seem to be conforming to the rules of
grammar and pronunciation, but because of her non- original context related environment,
she now fully participates in a speech of Julian’s community, participating in an
ongoing learning development. Another example from one of the forum contributions
is related to a bilingual capability, which is worth-bringing up, as challenges
Lilliana’s daughter’s language acquisition, compromising the two various
cultural perspectives and applying them in relevant contexts. Whilst her
daughter is not being ‘hermetically sealed’ within a single speech community, she
remains ‘unaffected by such grammatically irrelevant conditions’. (Chomsky,

linguistic theories, however need to be treated with justification. Extensive studies
on how the social context can impact language comprehension are of interest for
embodied and grounded theories of cognition, according to which language
comprehension ‘implies the recruitment of the same perception, action, and
emotion systems that are activated while interacting with the objects and while
performing the actions language’. While verbal communication has a participation
in social situated context, there is very little information on what these are
and as yet no confirmation on the supposed remarkable effects in humans, the
non-verbal one can equally indicate major social communication. For instance, if
we were travelling abroad as common tourists, in our interactions with other
nationalities from various geographical areas it is likely that our identity
will be much more relevant than our gender or social class. Interestingly, the Japanese
believe that context has influence on the tone of a conversation and the people
are keen on noticing any changes in posture, tone or facial expressions. Much
research on facial expression treats it as an automatic response to an internal
state, but facial expressions can be controlled voluntarily to a considerable
extent, and are used in social situations to convey a variety of kinds of
information. Many Japanese people speak with little to no facial expressions, because
words can have more than one meaning. This means that the Japanese people make
judgements by looking at a person’s physical reactions to determine the true interpretation
of their words. Conversely, Japanese people are so used to body language being
important to a conversation that it is common to see a person speaking on the
phone and unconsciously bowing, even though the person they are talking to
cannot see them. Smiles and head nods also serve as “back-channels”
(Yngve, 1970)—signs of confirmation by means of which communicators coordinate
meaning—and tend to occur at the same points in the conversation as verbal
backchannels (Brunner, 1979; Duncan et al., 1979). If gesticulations did not
serve a communicative function, why would speakers bother to make them?

While the
linguistic research practice theories offer some promising avenues as to
investigations on the extent of language in context, interactions can shed even
more light on real-world language-driven problems and issues e.g. language
learning and teaching, language contact and multilingualism etc. The ideas are
popular with theorists and high

Language use
and identity are conceptualised rather differently in a sociocultural
perspective on human action. Here, identity is not seen as singular, fi xed, and
intrinsic to the individual. Rather, it is viewed as socially constituted, a
refl exive, dynamic product of the social,


constantly changing linguistic environment embodied in contemporary comprehension of identity and its
connection to the universe of culture and language strenuously
demands new information on how
language use affects a speaker’s personal language cognition and how it is
reflected in the situated context. Consequently, understanding the nature
of the language and its links is central to the process of incorporating new
knowledge that leads to a rewiring of the individual’s language comprehension and
that a new portion of knowledge can only be absorbed when individuals are connected
to background knowledge of language structures.

historical and
political contexts of an individual’s lived experiences.. is to lay out some of
the more signifi cant assumptions

how this led him beyond a narrow view of what language and
applied linguistics research means






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