Research Paper

The Problem and its Scope Road accidents have become a common occurrence on roads, highways and motorways with its accompanying fatalities and casualties. The causes of these fatalities are indiscipline on the part of some drivers using the road, obvious disregard to road traffic laws, over-speeding, fatigue driving and poor nature of the roads. It is also in regard that the driving standard of many drivers has also been recognized to be poor, leading to a severe impact on the traffic accident problem.Also, a general low educational level of the driver population in combination with low economy and lack of widespread formalized driver education have been contributing factors to the problem (Webmaster, 2013). In the United States, there are more than 6 million car accidents on the roads of the United States annually and every year the lives of almost 1. 3 million people are cut short as a result of road traffic crash. Ranging from 20 to 50 million more people suffer non-fatal injuries, with many incurring a disability as a result of their injury.Such injuries and death often leave the victims and their families devastated (World Health Organization, 2012). In the national scene, City of Manila has revealed that bad overtaking and over-speeding topped the main causes of accidents on roads in the country that have so far claimed the lives of 1,074 persons out 11,414 road accidents that were documented by the Philippine National Police-Highway Patrol Group (PNP-HPG) across the country. One-thousand three-hundred ten accidents occurred due to mechanical defects of vehicles while 1,072 were blamed on road conditions.Aside from the above mentioned, other causes of accidents based on human factors are bad turn, overloading, and drunk driving. Above the entire documented road accidents, 4,378 people were injured, 443 of them pedestrians and six-thousand two-hundred sixteen accidents occurred at night while 5,198 occurred during the day (Recuenco, 2011). In the locality, a report from the Traffic Management Group (TMG) in Davao City revealed private vehicles have been involved in most number of vehicular accidents from January to October of 2011.From the total of 6,789 accidents, TMG-Davao statistician Police Officer 3 Dondon Purgatorio said that private vehicles were involved in 2,796 incidents; taxis – 1,153; public utility jeepney (PUJ)- 754; single motorcycles – 777; motorcycles with sidecar – 40; vans – 417; trucks – 284; buses – 101; government vehicles – 59; tricycles – 78; vehicle to structure – 78; bicycle – 42; armored car – 13; bicycle with sidecar – 7; trisiboat – 2; ambulance – 2; which clearly indicate the rampant road accidents happening in Davao City associated with reckless driving and human error which need to be addressed (Tejano, 2011).This research aspires to assess the level of awareness of the Public Utility Vehicle drivers which comprises of the PUJ drivers, PUB drivers, single motorcycle, trisiboat and taxis in connection to the LTO prohibitions and penalties. It aims to determine if the PUV drivers are following the Republic Act 4136 known as the Land transportation and Traffic so that more improvements will be given and road accidents will be lessen. The prohibitions and penalties found in the study will be solely coming from the Republic Act 4136 known as the Land transportation and Traffic.The provisions of the Act shall control, as far as they apply, the registration and operation of motor vehicles and the licensing of owners, dealers, conductors, drivers, and similar matters. Rationale of the Study Road accident is one of the major problems being faced globally with ever-rising trend. It represents a major public problem since high number of victims is involved and also the seriousness of the consequences for the victim themselves and to their families have great impact.Road accidents are generally classified as single vehicle accidents in which the vehicle is either colliding with fixed objects or with pedestrians or the vehicle may fall in a ditch and multiple vehicle accidents in which two or more than two vehicle can either collide head–on, or one vehicle may collide with the front vehicle at the back or may a have side-swipe type collision. Both are linked with the reckless driving of vehicular drivers or the unawareness of the road traffic rules and regulations.It continues to be a growing concern to all those who uses the roads. In addressing the global growing concern of road accidents, the researchers come up with a research paper in assessing the level of awareness of the Public Utility Vehicle drivers to LTO traffic rules and regulations in terms of prohibitions and penalties. In addition, this study will also determine as to whom among the PUV drivers in relation to their demographic profile in terms of age and vehicle driven are mostly aware of the LTO prohibitions and penalties.This study is beneficial to the operators of the public utility vehicles in order for them to have the necessary procedures like background checking about the driving history of the driver before they can actually let drivers drive their owned vehicles and they will be the one who will pay the necessary charges and penalties if drivers cannot pay the necessary fines. It is also beneficial to the drivers since they are the one who hold the safety and protection of all the passengers and they are the one who will be greatly penalized if the rules and regulations of the LTO are not completely followed.Davao City and Land Transportation Office and can benefit from this study as well, for the reason that they are the primarily concern on the security and safety of its citizenry in terms of public peaceful transportations that is free from the road hazard. It is also beneficial to them to give more road safety tips to drivers and lessen the road vehicular accidents. It is helpful to the Holy Cross of Davao College for the institution to give awareness to students, faculty and staffs regarding the hazards of road accidents brought by the result of this study.It is also helpful to students and teachers because they are the one who are the major commuters of the Public Utility vehicle and their safety lies in the awareness of the drivers to road traffic rules. The researchers can also get benefit from this study because they are the one who will assess the level of awareness of the PUV drivers to LTO violations thus, allowing them to give the necessary recommendations based on the result of the study. This is also beneficial to the future researchers since it will serve as an initial guide in conducting another related research work.Based on the above reasons, this study will be of great help not just in assessing the level of awareness of the drivers to LTO traffic rules and regulations but to lessen the widespread problem of road vehicular accident that is rampant through-out the world. Theories and Concepts This study will be anchored by Instructional Theory of Learning by Benjamin Bloom (1956). This theory offers explicit guidance on how to better help people learn and develop. It focuses more on how to structure materials for promoting the education and awareness of human beings.It also prescribes how to better help people learn. Learning theories often inform instructional theory, and three general theoretical stances take part in this influence: behaviorism (learning as response acquisition), cognitivism (learning as knowledge acquisition), and constructivism (learning as knowledge construction). In the context of the study, this theory will be used to determine the learning response, the learning knowledge acquisition and learning knowledge construction of the PUV drivers to road violations set by the LTO.Moreover, this theory will help the researchers in giving necessary recommendation to heighten the learning process of the PUV drivers to LTO rules and regulations. In the context of awareness, a major discussion in instructional theory is the potential of learning objects to structure and deliver content. It is also supported by Aptitude-Treatment Interaction (ATI) by Lee Joseph Cronbach (2001). This theory proposed that learning is optimized when instructional methods are exactly matched to the aptitudes and styles of the learner. It is based on the notion of different intelligences.Components of experimental work included task variables, situation variables, aptitudes of learners, and instructional treatments. Research indicated that high ability students do better with low levels of structure in the learning environment, and that low ability students do better with highly structured environments. Affect was also observed to influence learning, and research suggested that students with anxiety or high need to conform do better in structured environments, and students who are relaxed and independent prefer low structure. Kearsley, N. D. ). In line with the study, this theory will help the researchers assess what will be the right programs that must be given to different drivers of PUVs in order to enhance the level of awareness of PUV drivers to LTO violations. The awareness of a person is not a static state which can be arbitrarily turned on and off. It is rather a slow build-up of information about his surroundings. Before the actual communication process takes place, one must feel that the other person is capable of receiving and responding.Otherwise it would not make sense to write a message in the first place. Thus, awareness develops gradually over time, meaning different levels of awareness can exist (Riemer & Haines, 2008). Figure 1 reveals the variables of the study: Instructional Theory of Learning and Aptitute-Learning Interaction serve as the main foundation of the study. The process will be the level of awareness of PUV drivers on LTO violation in terms of prohibition and penalties. The moderator variables are PUV driven and age.The output of the study is the programs to enhance the level of awareness of PUV drivers on the LTO violation. Figure 1. Conceptual Framework of the Study Statement of the Problem This study aims to assess the level of awareness of Public Utility Vehicle drivers on Land transportation Office traffic rules and regulation. This study sought to answer the following questions: 1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of: 1. 1 Age; and 1. 2 Vehicle driven? 2. What is the level of awareness of PUV drivers on the LTO violations in terms of: 2. Prohibitions and 2. 2 Penalties? 3. Based on the result of the study, what recommendation can be made to enhance the level of awareness of PUV drivers to LTO violations? 4. Is there a significant difference between the level of awareness of the PUV drivers on the LTO prohibitions if respondents are grouped according to age and vehicle driven? 5. Is there a significant difference between the level of awareness of the PUV drivers on the LTO penalties if respondents are grouped according to age and vehicle driven? Hypothesis The study tested the null hypothesis at 0. 05 level of significance. Ho1: There is no significant difference between the level of awareness of the PUV drivers on the LTO prohibitions if respondents are grouped according to age and vehicle driven. Ho2: There is no significant difference between the level of awareness of the PUV drivers on the LTO penalties if respondents are grouped according to age and vehicle driven. Chapter 2 Review on Related LiteratureRoad transportation is the mode that has expanded the most over the last 50 years, both for passengers and freight transportation. The result of growth of the loading capacity of vehicle and an adaptation of vehicle to freight or passengers demand for speed, autonomy and flexibility arises  new types of problems, such as a significant growth of fuel consumption, increasing environmental externalities, traffic congestion and a multiplication of road accidents which have also emerged ( Rodriguez & Slacks, 2013).Rodriguez & Slacks (2013) also added that the capital cost of vehicles is relatively small, which makes it comparatively easy for new users to gain entry, high relative speed of vehicles and flexibility of route choice. These multiple advantages have made jeepneys, buses and motorcycle the modes of choice for a great number of trip purposes, and have led to their market dominance for short distance trips. Consequently, the success of these vehicles has given rise to a number of serious road problems. When traveling in the Philippines, there are a lot of cheap possibilities.For long distances on the bigger islands, the busses are the best possibility. For the shorter distances on all islands (outside and inside towns and cities), people make use of the jeepneys, multicabs and tricycles. In big cities like Manila or Cebu City, the most common mean of transportation is the jeepney. Everywhere in the Philippines, for the more short and local distances, the multicabs and tricycles are used by many Filipinos. The tricycle, a motorcycle with an attached passenger-cabin on a third wheel, is the cheapest.The big advantage of the tricycle is that it will bring you to every desired place. The multicabs, just as the jeepneys, have fixed routes. (Means of Transportation, N. D) The Philippines is one country where there is a low level of awareness of the need for transport safety. The recurring sinking of ships in which hundreds or even thousands have been killed and the frequent road accidents in which scores have died are testament to the indifference of the people to transport safety.There may be a great hue and cry after a major transport or vehicular disaster or accident, but after the outrage has died down, it is back to the same old habits and the same old disregard for, if not outright violation, of sea transport and road safety rules. (Philippine Daily Inquirer, 2011). Road accidents happen when people violate traffic rules, fail to keep their vehicles in good running condition and unintentionally do the wrong thing, such as making a wrong turn.Some accidents happen because drivers are in no condition to drive, such as when they are under the influence of liquor or drugs, are sleepy or fatigued or are sick. Among the other causes of road accidents are bad roads and lack of traffic and warning signs. A recent survey disclosed that the major factors that contribute to road mishaps can be classified under human error. Sixty-four percent of those surveyed cited vehicle malfunction due to neglect as the cause of accidents; 44 percent said it was overspeeding; 23 percent mentioned overloading; and 22 percent cited violation of traffic rules. Philippine Daily Inquirer, 2011) In order to lessen the major dilemma of road vehicular accident, Metro Manila Council, MMDA, the policy-making body, promulgates Ordinances, Traffic Regulations, Fines/Penalties, with its amendments and increases of fines for violations of land transportation laws in coordination with the LTO. Its applicability and enforceability depends on the existence and amendments of the Land Transportation Laws that mandates its regulatory powers. Cruz, 2013) Cruz (2013) also stated that the fines and penalties presently implemented by the LTO for violations of land transportation laws, relative to Licensing Registration, Number Plates and Stickers, Equipment, Parts, Accessories, Devices and Marking of Motor Vehicle, Weights and Load Limits, Prohibited or Illegal Operation of Motor Vehicles, Breach of Franchise and Related Violations, Frauds and Falsities, Parking and Violation of Drivers, Violations Involving Tax Units, Violations of the Seat Belt Law, Smoke Belching and Violations of Traffic Regulations are seeking for an effective solution to the serious vehicular accidents in the areas within the jurisdiction of the different cities and municipalities. According toAjero, Carillo & Constantino, (2010) one of the salutary effects of Davao City’s traffic signalization project is drastic reduction of road accidents especially in street intersections involving pedestrians crossing the streets. A typical Dabawenyo driver follows the baby rhyme “stop, look and listen” while plying the city streets. The driver actually stops to look if there is a traffic police officer, and then listens to a warning whistle, before he takes a wrong turn, or overtakes another vehicle. This is actually the culture not only of Davao drivers but of Filipino drivers in general. It is always easy to violate traffic rules when no one is looking, considering the old state of Davao City’s roads and manual traffic signs. Sometimes, it becomes so literal that a mere wave of the driver’s left hand means he wants to turn left or right.A comparative study conducted by Nishida (2009) reveals that most of traffic accidents are not caused by driver’s intentional behavior or consciousness, but most of traffic violations are committed by driver’s consciousness. It might be required to continue one’s attention to prevent an event, which is not related to driver’s consciousness and hard to foresee to occur. Such action is easy for a machine but hard for a man. There is a common factor that is related to both accident and violation, so it might be possible to reduce the accident risk by reducing violation. Therefore it may be possible to improve driver’s skill or change driver’s safety consciousness for reduction of violation and accident. The number of violation records has two meaning, one is a matter of driving behavior and the other is a matter of driving frequency.A driver with several violation records may be exposure to road traffic at the high frequency, whether his violations are related to dangerous behavior or not. Even if the accident rate per exposure is a half of the average driver, a driver with 3 times frequency of the average driver has a higher accident involvement rate than the average driver. (Nishida, 2009) Chapter 3 Methods The method that will be used in this study is composed of the following: research design, research respondents, research environment, research instruments, data gathering procedures and data analysis. Research Design This study will use the descriptive-evaluative research method to analyze the level of awareness of the PUV drivers on the LTO violations. In this study, only the quantitative approach will be employed.As described by Campbell and Fiske (2005), a descriptive survey questions tends to present conditions, events, or systems based on impressions or reactions of respondents. Likewise, Steinberg (2004) referred to descriptive research as corrective experiences precisely because it helps the researchers correct perceptions, which are too often inaccurate, if only because it rarely have the chance to see a picture in total. On the other hand, evaluation research is used to determine the impact of a social intervention. A social intervention is an action taken within a social context designed to produce an intended result. Evaluation research thus analyzes the impact of a particular program on a certain social problem the program is trying to solve (Social Research Methods/Evaluation Research, 2012).The flowchart illustrates the types of data to be gathered, the respondents, tools, techniques and output of the study in determining the level of awareness of the PUV drivers to LTO violations. Research Environment The study will be conducted in Davao City that is said to be the largest city in the world, has an area of 244,000 hectares, or 8 per cent of the land area of Southern Mindanao Region or Region XI. It is divided into 3 congressional districts and furthermore divided into 11 administrative districts. Poblacion and Talomo Districts comprised District I, meanwhile District II is composed of the following districts, namely: Agdao, Buhangin, Bunawan and Paquibato, District III includes Toril, Tugbok, Calinan, and Baguio.Each district is going to be the research locale on the conduct of the study, since these are the major places situated in Davao City. Davao City is a precise environment for the research because transportation safety is the primary concern that the government promotes to its community in connection with drivers response to road violation. Hence, it supports Land Transportation Office (LTO) traffic rules and regulations. Respondents of the Study The main respondents of the study are the Public Utility Vehicle (PUV) drivers, comprises of the jeepney drivers, bus drivers, taxi drivers, L3 van drivers and motorcycle drivers. They were chosen by the researchers because they were involved directly on the road hazards and on the traffic rules and regulations set by the LTO.The respondents for the survey questionnaire would be 10 PUV drivers for each congressional district in Davao City for a total of 100 drivers. Purposive sampling method will be used in selecting the respondents because this method represents a group of different non-probability sampling techniques. The purposive sampling relies on the judgment of the researcher when it comes to selecting the units. Usually, the sample being investigated is quite small, especially when compared with probability sampling techniques (Lund Research Ltd, 2010). Moreover, the respondents were picked elsewhere in the different municipalities and barangays in each congressional district in Davao City to answer the survey questionnaire. Table 1. Respondents of the study District |Number of respondents | |First Congressional District | | |Poblacion |10 | |Talomo |10 | |Second Congressional District | | |Buhangin |10 | |Bunawan |10 | |Agdao 10 | |Paquibato |10 | |Third Congressional District | | |Baguio |10 | |Calinan |10 | |Toril |10 | |Tugbok |10 | |TOTAL |100 | Research Instruments The instrument that will be used in this research is survey questionnaires made by the researchers.They were prepared in the Bisaya but translated in English language. The statements used in the survey came from readings and sample researches as to the MMDA roads traffic rules and regulations. The survey questionnaire has two parts regarding the demographic profile of the respondents and the level of awareness of the PUV drivers on the LTO violations. The scoring assessment of the level of awareness of PUV drivers to LTO prohibitions and penalties will be categorized into four ( 4) points scale. The degree on awareness on the LTO prohibitions and penalties as given in the direction of the questionnaire will be done through a scaling system.The research instrument will be validated by three validators who are experts on the topic and a master’s degree holder. It will undergo a pilot testing to determine its reliability since the researchers made use of the Likert scale method. The answered questionnaires will be tabulated, analyzed and recorded. Data Gathering Procedure The researchers observed the following steps in distributing and collecting the survey questionnaires. During the vacant period or the resting period of the respondents, the researchers had personally administered and distributed the survey questionnaire and then gave the instructions in every part so that the respondents mentioned would follow the directions completely.The gathered data are tallied and subjected to statistical interpretation to determine the level of awareness of the PUV drivers to LTO violations in terms of prohibitions and penalties. After which, the gathered data will be tested using t-test and ANOVA to analyze the hypothesis of the study. Data Analysis In the analysis of the data, the following statistical tools were used: Frequency Count, Percentage, Weighted Mean, T-test and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Frequency Count and Percentage were used in question no. 1 of the statement of the problem to determine the demographic profile of the respondents. In addition, Weighted Mean was used for the second question to identify the level of awareness of the PUV drivers on the LTO violation. On the other hand, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used in question no. and 4 of the statement of the problem to find the significant difference on the level of awareness of the PUV drivers on the LTO violations in terms of prohibitions and penalties when the respondents are grouped by PUV driven, age and status as ANOVA is appropriate for three or more variables. The level of awareness of PUV drivers to LTO prohibition and penalties will be scaled as follows: |Rating |Description |Interpretation | |3. 51-4. 00 |Very Aware |The level of awareness to LTO prohibition/penalties is very | | | |high. | |2. 51-3. 50 |Aware |The level of awareness to LTO prohibition/penalties is high. | | | | | |Moderately Aware |The level of awareness to LTO prohibition/penalties is | |1. 51-2. 50 | |moderate. | |1. 00-1. 50 |Unaware |The level of awareness to LTO prohibition/penalties is very | | | |high. | References: Ajero, A. Carillo, L. & Constantino, E. C. ( 2010). Traffic signalization reduces accidents. Retrieved on March 2, 2013 from http://www. edgedavao. net/index. php? option=com_content&view=article&id=3646:traffic-signalization-reduces-accidents&catid=51:on-the-cover&Itemid=83 Ayuso, M. ,Guillen M. & Alcaniz, M. (2009).The impact of traffic violations on the estimated cost of traffic accidents with victims” Accident Analysis and Prevention. Retrieved on March 2, 2013 from http://www. oru. se/PageFiles/52177/Determinantso%20of%20traffic%20violations. pdf Bloom, B. (1956). What Is Instructional Theory?. Retrieved on February 28, 2013 from http://www. wisegeek. com/what-is-instructional-theory. htm Campbell and Fiske (2005). Descriptive survey questions in research. Retrieved on February 28, 2013 from http://195. 246. 41. 215/website1/arabic/destination%20appraisal. pdf Cronbatch, L. J. ( 2001). Theories of Learning in Educational Psychology. Lee Joseph Cronbach: Aptitude – Treatment Interactions (ATI). Retrieved on February 28, 2013 from http://www. lifecirclesinc. om/Learningtheories/cronbach. html Cruz, S. (2013). Fines/Penalties for Violations of Land Transportation Laws by the LTO, MMDA and the LGUs. Reference and research bureau legislative research service. Retrieved on March 2, 2013 from http://www. congress. gov. ph/download/researches/rrb_0302_10. pdf Kearsley, G. (n. d. ). Aptitude-Treatment Interaction (L. Cronbach & R. Snow). Retrieved February 28, 2013 from http://tip. psychology. org/cronbach. html Lund Research 2010. Retrieved on March 1, 2013 from http://dissertation. laerd. com/. Means of Transportation (N. D. ). Most common means of transportation. Retrieved on March 2, 2012 from http://www. philippines. vu. nl/transport1. htm Nishida, Y. (2009). Road traffic accident involvement rate by accident and violation records: new methodology for driver education based on integrated road traffic accident database. Retrieved on March 2, 2013 from http://www. internationaltransportforum. org/irtadpublic/pdf/seoul/3-Nishida. pdf Philippine Daily Inquirer, (2011). Road safety. Retrieved on March 2, 2013 from http://opinion. inquirer. net/inquireropinion/editorial/view/20110111-313759/Road-safety Recuenco, (2011). 1,074 killed in road accidents from January-September this year. Tempo news in flash. Retrieved on February 28, 2013 from http://www. tempo. com. h/2011/10/1074-killed-in-road-accidents-from-january-september-this-year/#. UTKWFLL1K7Y Riemer, K. & Haines, R. (2008). The dynamic nature of awareness. Retrieved on February 28, 2013 from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Dynamic_awareness_theory Rodriguez, J. P & Slacks, B. (2013). Road transportation: The setting of road transport system. The geography of transport system. Retrieved on March 2, 2013 from http://people. hofstra. edu/geotrans/eng/ch3en/conc3en/ch3c2en. html Social Research Methods/Evaluation Research, ( 2012). Social Research Methods/Evaluation Research. Retrieved on March 1, 2013 from http://en. wikibooks. org/wiki/Social_Research_Methods/Evaluation_Research. Tejano, (2011).Private vehicles top road accidents. Sunstar Davao. Retrieved on February 28, 2013 from http://www. sunstar. com. ph/davao/local-news/2011/12/07/private-vehicles-top-road-accidents-194565 Webmaster, (2013). Road accidents on the increase. Retrieved on March 1, 2013 from http://www. newsfromafrica. org/newsfromafrica/articles/art_594. html World Health Organization, (2012). Road traffic injuries. Retrieved on February 27, 2013 from http://www. who. int/violence_injury_prevention/road_traffic/en/ ———————– Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Instructional Theory of Learning Level of Awareness of PUV drivers on the LTO violations in terms of: a. Prohibition b. PenaltiesPrograms to enhance the level of awareness of PUV drivers on the LTO prohibitions and penalties a. PUV driven b. Age Output of the Study • Programs to enhance the level of awareness of the PUV drivers on the LTO violations Techniques Used to Analyze Data • Frequency • Percentage • Weighted mean • ANOVA Tools Used to Gather Data • Survey Questionnaire Respondents • Public Utility Vehicle drivers PUV driven Age Types of Data Gathered • Demographic Profile of the respondents in terms of PUV driven and age • Level of Awareness on the LTO violations in terms of prohibitions and penalties • Significant Difference between the level of awareness in terms of prohibition and penalties in terms of PUV driven and Age


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