Assignment of training and development

This paper deals with a comparative study on the issue of training and development for several leading pharmaceutical companies in Bangladesh. This study is based on primary data (questionnaire survey) and descriptive statistical tools have been used for analysis. The study covers critical analysis of few training and development parameters, like, need assessment, availability of training materials, resource persons, priorities Of training program, training budget etc. The analysis of the study shows that Glaxo SmithKline Bangladesh Limited is in a better position than any other leading harmaceutical companies in Bangladesh on the issue of training and development. Introduction In any organization training is nothing but a means of survival in an extremely competitive and rapidly changing environment . Staffs are the key factor and determine the success of any large-scale project. The importance of this factor cannot be overemphasized for innovation or the widening of horizons. All measures to promote training are deliberately multifaceted and should form part of an ongoing process. The extreme usefulness of equal opportunities training should not be ignored since it brings to a firm a new outlook and enthusiasm.Several evaluations have had an impact on training in the last decade. Technological evaluations, social and political changes and the internationalization of markets are rendering organizational management and planning increasingly difficult. Change and evolution go hand in hand with uncertainty, the inability to plan and unpredictability. Training ensures that a workforce has the ability to reach and maintain a leading Position: equal opportunities training ensure that employee and organizational status is continuously enhanced and not held back by discriminatory forces. H. Collins, 2001). As a very important aspect of HRM, it has been tried in this study to focus different features of Training and Development programs of GSK Bangladesh Limited. For the study this comparison part belongs to: 1) To get an overview regarding the effectiveness of training and development of GSK in comparison With other pharmaceutical companies; 2) To determine the strengths and weaknesses of training and development programs of GSK in comparison to other companies. 3) To determine the standards of training programs of GSK in comparison ith other related companies. Another important aspect of this study is that in this study comparison between the training and development programs of a multinational company with a local company and also with a multinational, company have conducted so that the scenario of these companies regarding training and development can be found out and what arc the similarities and differences between these companies in this field that can also determined. So, for this reasons these three companies have been chosen. Objective The main objectives of this study are as follows: To get idea about the necessity of training and development programs of any company. • To have a contemporary picture focusing the training and development programs GlaxoSmithKline Bangladesh Limited and in other two companies. • To make comparison among the training programs of different pharmaceutical companies. • To identify any shortcoming in the training and development programs of GlaxoStnithKlinr Bangladesh Limited. • To recommend some points minimizing the shortcomings of the training and development, programs of GlaxoSmithKline Bangladesh Ltd. Literature ReviewTraining is the formal procedure which a company uses to facilitate employee’s learning so that their resultant behavior contributes to the attainment of the company’s goals and objectives. (Mc Gehee & Thayer, 1964). Many authors defined training in different views or aspects. Such definitions are many but quite sufficient to reveal the important characteristics of training. There are many definitions but all that they mean is to cover a wide range of subject under the term training. And such definition may safely be used to define a number of other terms, namely, education, learning, personnel development, instruction and so on.Thus these definitions lead to some vague motions about the term and task the required degree of specification Training is a hallmark of good management, and task managers overlook at their peril. Training refers to the methods used to give new or present employees the skills they need to perform their jobs. ( Gary Dessler, 2003). The use of the terms training & development in today’s employment setting is for more appropriate than training alone since human resource can exert their full potential only when the learning process goes for beyond simple routine, (Dale Yoder, 1970). Training” is more inclusive than it used to be Training used to focus mostly on teaching technical skills, such as training assemblers to solder wires teachers to write lesson plans. (Carolyn Wiley, 1993) Training involves a series of planned, goal directed activities. This implies that training imparts these, knowledge, skill and attitudes in the trainee which are identified through needs analysis to be relevant for improving job performance. Training aims at changing the knowledge, skill and attitudes of the person that his/ her job performance is improved in the pre determined direction.Thus training involves two steps objectives to bring about the desired changed in the level of knowledge, skills and attitudes of the employee and the ultimate objective to improve the level of the job performance of the trainees. Timing outcomes are measurable. This stems from the first characteristics which states that training is a planed activity. Since training program has organized to achieve certain predetermined objectives, a systematic evaluation is possible to be carried out to assess the extent of success or failure of the program and also to know for sure the factors responsible for such outcomes.Training involves learning process for bringing about the desired change in the employee behavior. Organization and individual should develop and progress simultaneously for their survival and attainment of mutual goals. So every modern management has to develop the organization through human resource development. Employee training is the important sub-system of human resource development. It is a specialized function and is one of the fundamental operative functions for human resources management. (P. Subba Rao, 1999). Task analysis and performance analysis are two main ways to identify training needs.Task analysis is specially suitable for the determining the needs of employees who are new to their jobs. Performance analysis appraises the performance of current employees to determine whether training could reduce problems like excess scrap or low output. Supplementary methods used to identify training needs include supervisors’ reports, personnel records, management requests, observations, tests of job knowledge, and questionnaire surveys. (B. A. Bass et al. , 1978) Methodology The study is based on both secondary and primary data.Secondary Data Collection The main sources of secondary data were annual reports of different pharmaceuticals companies. Internet websites of different leading pharmaceuticals companies in Bangladesh, like Beximco, Novartis etc. were used as sources of secondary data. Primary Data Collection Primary data have been collected through formal interview and informal interview. Formal interviews were conducted through questionnaire survey. The questionnaire comprised of open ended, close ended and Likert scale questions, but majority was close ended questions.Pre-testing of the questionnaire was conducted by consulting with training manager of GSK. After proper pre-testing, the final questionnaire was prepared. Proper attention was given for typing, pre-coding and printing of questionnaire to make the questionnaire user friendly. The face to face interviews through the questionnaire were conducted during the period of November’06 to February’07 to 50 respondents of the following organizations: •Glaxo SmithKline Bangladesh Limited •Beximco Pharmaceuticals Limited •Novartis Limited Data AnalysisData were collected from various sources have been analyzed properly. Statistical tools have been used for this analysis. MS Excel and SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) were used for data analysis. After summarizing the data, results have been presented through graphical and tabular forms. Limitations The following limitations have been faced while conducting the research. 1) HRM studies are done through a longer period of time in which observation is very important, but this research mainly relied on questionnaire survey. ) The training and development programs run in corporate head offices of GSK Bangladesh Limited and other pharmaceuticals companies have been focused in the study. But field offices related organizations have not been considered for the study. Comparative Analysis of Training and Development Programs The comparative analysis of training and development among different pharmaceutical companies has been conducted through the following criteria: Conducting Formal Training and Development ProgramA questionnaire was selected to find out whether targeted pharmaceuticals companies including GSK and others conduct any formal training program or not? The study shows that 100% of the respondent companies conduct formal training and development programs (Figure 1) [pic] Figure No 1: Conducting Formal Training Program Need Assessment of Training Program One of the objective of the study was to find out the tools and techniques used in different pharmaceutical companies to assess the need for giving training to their employees. The findings of this objective are shown in Table No. 1. Table 1: Assessing Techniques for Training Need Assessing Techniques for Training Need |GSK |BPL |Novartis | |Need Analysis | | | | |Performance Appraisal | | | | |Departmental Recommendation | | |- | |Service HistoryReport | |- |- | |Individual’s Need | | |- | Availability of Resource Person The questionnaire was designed to find out the availability of resource persons for conducting necessary training to the targeted pharmaceutical companies. Study shows that all the lending pharmaceutical companies in Bangladesh have necessary resource persons for fulfilling their training demands (Table 2 and Figure 2).Table 2: Availability of Training of the Survey |Availability of Training Personnel |Frequency |Percentage | |Yes |4 |100 | |No |0 |0 | |Total |4 |100 | pic] Figure 2: Availability of Resource Person Types of Training Program The study also aims to find out different types of training programs conducted by the targeted pharmaceutical companies and the result has been shown by Table 3. Table 3: Type of Training Programs Types of Training Programs |GSK |BPL |Novartis | |Overseas Training | | | | |In-house Training but Outside Locality | |- | | |External Training Arranged by the Company | | | |It has been found that GSK and Novartis conduct all types of training programs, whereas BPL has no in house training programs arranged in the outside of the locality. Training Materials One of the objectives of the study was to find out different types of training materials used by leading pharmaceutical companies in Bangladesh during training programs. Table 4 indicates the result of this objective. Table 4: Training Materials Training Materials |GSK |BPL |Novartis | |Multimedia | | | | |Books and Journals | |- |- | |White-board Marker | | | | |Over Head Projector | | | | The study shows that GSK uses most of the training materials than any other companies. Abroad Training The study shows that GSK and BPL send their employees for training in abroad, but Novartis prefers for participating their employees for home training programs (Table 5) Table 5: Facility for the Employees for Higher Education Sending Employees Abroad for Training |GSK |BPL |Novartis | |Yes | | | | |No | | | | Priorities of Training Programs Eight priorities have been selected for training programs of GSK, BPL and Novartis. These priorities are: sales target, employees’ motivation, employees’ need, technology know how, employees’ behavior, new product, upgrading employees, skills and orientation program.Table 6 and Figure 3 show the priorities of training program of leading pharmaceuticals companies of Bangladesh. Table 6: Priorities of Training Program |Factors |GSK |BPL |Novartis | |Sales Target |100% |50% |75% | |Employees’ Motivation |100% |50% |75% | |Employees’ Need |75% |75% |100% | |Technology Know How 75% |75% |100% | |Employees’ Behavior |75% |50% |75% | |New Product |100% |75% |75% | |Upgrading Employees’ Skills |100% |75% |100% | |Orientation |100% |50% |50% | [pic]Figure 3: Priorities of Training Program Training Budget It is unlikely that the training budget of GSK and Novartis are decreasing with respect of time and the study shows that the training budget for BPL has been increased significantly for last few years (Table 7). Table 7: Allocated Budget for Training and Development |Name of the Company |Allocated Training Budget (Tk. In lac) | | |2003 |2004 |2005 | |GSK |10. |12 |10 | |BPL |1 |3. 5 |5 | |Novartis |10. 25 |10. 5 |10 | Training Participated by Individuals One of the main studies of individuals was to find out the approximate amount of experienced by individuals. The study shows that 45% of the employees participated less than 10 training program which is followed by 15 to 20 training program that is 323%. Table 8: Number of training program participated by individuals Number of training |Percentage | |20 |11% | |Total |100% | Evaluation of Training Personnel One of the questionnaires of the study was designed to evaluate the quality of tanning personnel. Six parameters have been selected for this purpose and these are: encouraging two way interaction, punctuality, and ability to explain the objective clearly, time convenience (duration to complete), ability to make the subject matter clear and ability to make the session interesting. Table 9: Evaluation of Training Personnel Parameters |Strongly Satisfied |Satisfied (%) |Not Satisfied (%) |No Comments | | |(%) | | | | |Encouraging two way |30% |44. 44% |11. 11% |11. 11% | |interaction | | | | | |Ability to explain the |44. 44% |33. 33% |11. 11% |11. 11% | |objective clearly | | | | | |Time convenience (Duration|11. 11% |44. 44% |33. 33% |11. 11% |to complete) | | | | | |Ability to make the |44. 44% |44. 44% |0% |11. 11% | |subject matter clear | | | | | |Ability to make the |11. 11% |55. 55% |22. 22% | | |session interesting | | | | | | | | | |11. 11% | |Punctuality |22. 22% |33. 33% |33. 3% |11. 11% | Training Materials and Environment The study shows that about 55. 55% respondents are satisfied about training materials and 66. 66% respondents are satisfied about the training environment, but 66. 665 respondents are not satisfies about trainer for the training programs conducted by leading pharmaceuticals companies in Bangladesh. Table 10: Training Materials and Environment |Standard |Satisfied |Not Satisfied |No comments | |Training materials |55. 55% |33. 33% |11. 1% | |Training environment |66. 66% |22. 22% |11. 11% | |Trainer |22. 22% |66. 66% |11. 11% | |Duration of Training |22. 22% |66. 66% |11. 11% | |Training rooms |44. 44% |44. 44% |11. 11% | Observations and Lessons Learnt The followings are the Observations and lessons learnt from the study: 1.GSK conducts a good number of in-house and external training and development program each year and also arranges overseas trainings for their potential employees. Both Beximco and Novarties also conduct these types of program. 2. The Training and Development Divisions under HR Department of GSK use highly sophisticated tools to analyze training needs than other pharmaceuticals companies like Beximco pharma and Novartis Bangladesh Ltd. 3. Many reputed pharmaceuticals companies expert GSK do not have skilled training resource personall. GSK uses extremely technical advanced equipment and materials for training purpose. 4. GSK often sends their employees abroad for training or workshop or for higher education. Beximco and Novartis have this practice also. 5.GSK recognizes a huge expense for training and development purpose each year. 6. GSK allows their employees to ask questions and queries but for some limitation including time constraints employees of GSK are not willing to ask questions during the training session. 7. Employees of GSK are almost satisfied with the current training and development programs but some are found to be less satisfied with the trainer and duration of training. These factors should be taken care of. Conclusions All the companies both domestic and multinational are very much conscious about the development of their human resource and so far that each and every company understands the importance of training and development.Every company wants to utilize their human resources in a very effective way and do so every company is given emphasis on training and development program. Comparing with the other two renowned domestic and multinational companies it has been already found that GSK is one step a head than others. And as the goal of GSK is to be indisputable leader in the field of world pharmaceuticals companies. To achieve this goal GSK has to develop a global set up for each operation country office with local companies. Keeping the target in mind GSK realizes the indispensable need of training. This is the reason for developing training and development program.They give tremendous effort to make this division a stronger and constructive unit and by this process it will continue its journey and increase its reputation, goodwill and corporate image in the business world. ———————– Training and Development in the Pharmaceutical Sector [DRAFT] |Towhidul Haque Roni |093 0489 060 | |Intakhab Alam Talukdar |112 1087 660 | |Kaniz Khadiza |083 204 060 | 2012 Group -K 29-Mar-12


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