Each country has its own health disparities. In high-income
countries, health care is easily attainable to the public. On the other
hand, in low-income countries, health care is very scarce and only available
for the rich. The four countries that will be discussed are Haiti, the
Philippines, Iraq, and Italy. First, Haiti is a low-income country.
Second, the Philippines are a lower-middle income country. Next,
Iraq is an upper-middle income country. Lastly, Italy is a high-income
country. The five health disparities that will be analyzed are healthy
life expectancy, literacy rate, total fertility rate, infant or under-five
child mortality rate, and maternal mortality rate.
Healthy life expectancy
estimates the expected years of good health a person will have in their
lifetime. Every country has a different healthy life expectancy.
Just looking at the data, life expectancy seems to have a direct
relationship with income, meaning it increases as income increases.
Starting with high-income, Italy has the highest life expectancy of 83
years. Iraq is second with a life expectancy of 70 years. Next is
the Philippines, which isn’t far behind Iraq with a life expectancy of 69
years. Lastly, Haiti has a life expectancy of 63 years. In
comparison, Haiti has a life expectancy that is 20 years less than Italy.
Literacy rate, the ability to read and
write, seems to not be affected by income. Starting with Italy, the
highest income county, also has the highest literacy rate of 98.85%. The
Philippines comes in second with a literacy rate of 96.4%, despite being a
lower-middle income country. Third is Haiti, a low-income country, with a
literacy rate of 48.69%. Lastly, Iraq has a literacy rate of 43.68%, despite
being a upper-middle income country.
Total fertility rate is the number of births
per woman. Iraq, an upper-middle country has the highest fertility rate
of 4.4 children per woman. Haiti and the Philippines, the low-income and
lower-middle income countries both have a fertility rate of 3.0. Lastly,
Italy has the lowest fertility rate of 1.4 children per woman despite being the
country with the highest income.
mortality rate is the probability of dying before a child reaches five years of
age. Haiti has the highest under-five mortality rate of 51 (per 1,000
live births), which is the country with the lowest income. Iraq has the
second highest under-five rate with a rate of 26 (per 1,000 live births),
despite being an upper-middle income country. The Philippines has an
under-five rate of 22 (per 1,000 live births), followed by Italy, which only
has an under-five rate of 3 (per 1,000 live births).
Maternal mortality is when a woman
dies during pregnancy or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy and tends
to have an inverse (opposite) relationship to income, meaning maternal
mortality decreases as income increases. Haiti has the highest maternal
mortality rate of 359 (per 100,000 live births), and has the lowest income of
all the countries. The Philippines is second with a rate of 114 (per
100,000 live births). Iraq has a maternal mortality rate of 50 (per
100,000 live births), which is less than half the rate of the Philippines.
As a high-income country, Italy has the lowest maternal mortality rate of
4 (per 100,000 live births). In comparison, Haiti’s maternal mortality
rate is nearly one hundred times higher than Italy’s.