*Describe the history of Somalia since 1990 and connect it to the issue of Piracy.It is agreed upon that Somalia had a dysfunctional government since 1991 when the Somali civil war occurred. According to the site GlobalSecurity.org, “since 1991, an estimated 350,000 to 1,000,000 Somalis had died because of the conflict.” Therefore the year 1991 marked the downfall of the Somalian state. Also during that year, former British protectorate of Somaliland declared independence from Somalia. During the following year, Somalian president Bare Barre was forced out of office. This led to ongoing feudal struggles which forced the US and UN to get involved to help end the situation. The violence continues in the year 1993, as Somali rebels were involved in shooting down two U.S. helicopters, resulting in the death of 18 U.S. Army Rangers and one Malaysian man. Commonly known as the “Black Hawk Down” incident, the Battle of Mogadishu is a series of events that took place during 1994 that led to the withdrawal of nearly all international actors. Since 1995,Somalia had been off the grid primarly for about two decades , which was the year when UN peacekeepers left after failing their mission, with only small occasional engagements over the last decade. In the year 1998, Puntland declared autonomy in Somalia. And in the year 2000, Clan leaders and senior figures meeting in Djibouti elect Abdulkassim Salat Hassan president of Somalia. The US has another intervention in the year 2002, as suspisions were raised that Al-Qaeda fighters may be seeking refuge in Somalia, therefore they increased military operations in the region. Many Somalis were killed and made homeless along the Somali Coast when the 2004 tsunami hit coastal areas and the Somali island of Hafun. The year 2006 has witnessed the worst violence in almost a decade, as scores of people were killed and injured during fierce fighting between rival militias in Mogadishu. During the months of June and July in 2006, Militias loyal to the Union of Islamic Courts take Mogadishu and other parts of south after defeating clan warlords.During 2007 Islamists abandon their last stronghold, the southern port of Kismayo.But the modern-day Somali pirate problem started around 2008, when bands of former fishermen began speeding into Somalia’s waters, hijacking whatever crossed their paths. Typically, pirates would scamper aboard a ship at night, rush to the pilothouse and commandeer the vessel at gunpoint. This resulted to the UN Security Council approval to send warships to Somalia’s territorial waters in order to combat the threat of Somali pirates, who have begun hijacking ships regularly. In 2009, piracy off the coast of Somalia became a global issue at near epidemic levels. The impact of Somali piracy affected the entire international community as shipping expenses increased. In February 2010 Al-Shabab grouped with al-Qaeda and settled plans to seize the capital. In 2012 the first formal parliament in 20 years has been sworn in the Mogadishu airfield. They have detained the port of Merca from Al-Shabab. February 2016 the African leaders agreed to the need of support and funding for the military’s presence after weeks of attacks caused by Al-Shabab. They have recaptured the southern port after briefly seizing it.